Down syndrome is caused when there is a partial or full copy of chromosome 21. Its when children lack physical ability and developmental delays which are caused by a genetic disorder.
Klinefelter syndrome is when a boy is born with one or more extra x chromosomes. Usually males have one x and one y chromosome, if a male has an extra x chromosome it can make the male have physical traits that are unusual for men.
Turner syndrome is when a chromosomal condition alters development in females. Researchers found that a gene called SHOX is extremely important for bone development and growth. They believe that females lacking this gene is one of the causes of turner syndrome.
Color blindness is when the mother carries the mutated gene and will pass it on to 50% of her offspring. Because females have two X chromosomes the effect of a mutation on one X chromosome is set off by the normal gene on the other X chromosome. If this is the case the mother will not have the disease. Colorblindness is more frequent in men.