How are Tsunami formed?
When movement along a fault moves the seafloor upward, water is also pushed upward and becomes tsunami.
Tsunami can be formed by earthquakes or volcanic eruption occurs under the sea. The earthquake releases a lot of energy that creates these waves. The crust of earth contains many plates that always move. In some cases, one plate moves on top of another plate. When this happens, the plate that moves upward pushes the water above and a tsunami is born. About 80% of all tsunamis result from undersea earthquakes.
All oceanic regions of the world can experience tsunamis, but in the Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas, there is a much more frequent occurrence of large, destructive tsunamis because of the many large earthquakes along the margins of the Pacific Ocean. Major tsunamis occur about once per decade. Based on historical data, about 59% of the world's tsunamis have occurred in the Pacific Ocean, 25% in the Mediterranean Sea, 12% in the Atlantic Ocean, and 4% in the Indian Ocean.
The 10 worst tsunami in history
- Sumatra, Indonesia - 26 December 2004
- North Pacific Coast, Japan - 11 March 2011
- Lisbon, Portugal - 1 November 1755
- Krakatau, Indonesia - 27 August 1883
- Enshunada Sea, Japan - 20 September 1498
- Nankaido, Japan - 28 October 1707
- Sanriku, Japan - 15 June 1896
- Northern Chile - 13 August 1868
- Ryuku Islands, Japan - 24 April 1771
- Ise Bay, Japan - 18 January 1586