The house of Windsor
The monarchy exists since 924. The house of windsor is the name of the English dynasty. The slogan of the family is “ Dieu et mon droit”, that means: God and my right. There are many persons in the family. The current family starts with queen Elizabeth II, she was born on April 21 in 1926. Her husband is Philip, the duke of Edinburgh and he was born in 1921 as the prince of Greece and Denmark. They married in 1947. They have four children. Charles; prince of Wales, Anne Mountbatten-Windsor, Andrew; duke of York and Edward; earl of Wessex. Charles is the crown prince, he is also the prince of Wales. He married with Diana Frances Spencer in 1981. They divorced in 1996. They got two children: William and Harry. After Diana and Charles divorced, he married with Camilla Parker Bowles in 2005, who got her surname of her marriage with the army officer Andrew Parker Bowles. Prince William is the duke of Cambridge. He married Catherine Middleton in 2011. She was born as Kate, but she named herself after her marriage with William Catherine. They got in 2013 a son named George Alexander Louis. He is the prince of Cambridge. In 2015 they’ve got a daughter named Charlotte Elizabeth Diana. She is the princess of Cambridge.
Queen of England
Queen Elizabeth is since 1952 the queen of England. That is now for 65 years. She started at a very young age, she was 26. Elizabeth started that early because her father, George VI, died in 1952. Since 9 September 2015 she is the longest ruling monarch in the British history. In 2016 the king of Thailand died and since that moment she is the longest ruling monarch and head of state in the world. The successor of queen Elizabeth is Prince Charles. He is now 68 years old and when he finally becomes the king of England he will be a few years older. After Charles comes William, his son. William is now 34 years old. The son of William, George, is the third in the row. After George comes his little sister Charlotte. There are a lot of people thinking that they will skip Charles as a king and go straight to William, because he will be too old when Elizabeth stops with ruling.
In 1957 the European Economic Community was formed by France, West-Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and Italy. Although the UK was considering to join the EEC right away, it was not until 1973 that they actually became a member. In january of that year prime minister Edward Heath signed the treaty. Apparently the UK has never been completely happy about it, because in 1975 the first referendum was held. At that time people chose to remain in the EEC. In 1979 Margaret Thatcher became the new prime minister. She especially was very upset about the fact that the UK, being one of the poorest of the nine member states, contributed twice as much as West-Germany and ten times as much as France to the European budget. She demanded a lowering of the UK’s contribution. The UK received that discount in 1984. After that, several other countries claimed discounts as well. Despite the discount they received, the enthusiasm for the European Union declined in the UK. In 1988 Thatcher held a speech in which she gave the British vision on the Union. It should consist of sovereign states that collaborate, keeping their habits, traditions and identity. The power of the union should not be concentrated in Brussels. Later on, they decided not to join in the common currency, the Euro. They stayed out of the passport free ‘Schengen’ zone and they also did not participate in the European justice and home affairs policies. At the end of 2011, prime minister David Cameron refused to sign a pact that was designed to fight the debt crisis because the pact would not safeguard the banks in city of London. For the UK, the European Union should be no more than a large free trade area. They also feared the inflow of large number of migrant workers from eastern european countries. Polls conducted in 2015 showed that 45% of the population was pro-EU, 38% was against and 17% had no opinion. On 23rd of june 2016, an advisory referendum was organised by the british parliament regarding the EU membership of the UK. Unexpectedly, a very small majority of 51,9% chose to leave the EU. There appeared to be large differences between the results from Scotland and Ireland on the one hand, and England and Wales on the other. The former countries wanted to remain in the EU, the latter wanted to leave. In London a majority chose to remain as well because it is a very important financial center in and most of it’s revenue is coming from Europe. Because David Cameron had been a supporter of the ‘remain camp’, his position as prime minister became very uncertain. Several hours after the final result of the referendum, he announced to resign as prime minister in october 2016 because he thought he would be unfit to lead the UK out of the EU. Although she had also joined the ‘remain camp’ before the referendum, Theresa May accepted the position of prime minister on 13th july 2016, stating that she considered the result of the referendum as binding: “Brexit means brexit”.