Food Shortages :
According to The United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization the production of food needs to increase by 70% by 2050 in order to feed 9.3 million people. Climate change may effect the availability of natural resources, threatening the decrease of the productivity of crops. This may cause an increase of the number of malnourished people in the world, especially in Africa. One in five developing countries will face water shortages by 2030. This will also have a huge affect on food production.
The 21st century marks the first time that the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. The number of "slum dwellers" is increasing, jeopardizing water and sanitation services. This creates a cycle of poverty and poor health. Many rural people are forced to move to cities because of lack of employment and services.
The world's population is currently above 7.4 billion and expected to grow to 9.6 billion by 2050 according to the UNFPA. The amount of people and their demands will be very difficult to meet in the next 50 years. This graph shows different scenarios of the world population annual increase.
Lower Infant Mortality
The mortality rate of children under five has dropped from 12.7 million to 6.3 million deaths (in 2013) -- a decrease of more than half. If this trend continues, under-five mortality rates will reduce by two-thirds (since 1990) will be reached in 2026.
The world's population over 60 is expected to increase from 12% in 2015 to 22% in 2050. Low and middle income countries are currently experiencing the greatest change of population aging. By 2050, Chile, China, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Russian Federation will have about 30% of their population above the age of 60, a similar proportion to the current proportion of older people in Japan.