Between Each Main Phase: 7 days / Between Full and New or First and Last Quarter: 14 days / Whole Cycle: 28 days / Between Each Individual Phase: 3 1/2 days
Similarities and Differences
The similarities between the First (waxing) and Third (waning) quarter moon phases is that in both phases only about 50% of the moon is lit up. The difference is that the First Quarter is lit up on the right side, and the Waning Quarter is lit up on the left side.
The reason that we see the moon differently from the ISS (International Space Station) is that the moon rotates around the Earth, and when it does, we see different areas of the light reflecting off the moon. In the ISS, the moon is only lit up halfway the entire time in reality, and since the ISS is seeing the moon from space and not the Earth, then they see the moon lit up only halfway all the time (in theory).
Waning and Waxing
What's the difference between waning and waxing? Well, waxing is when the moon is becoming a full moon, and waning is when the moon is transforming into a new moon. To be more specific, waxing is the moon rotating to the far side of the Earth (farthest from the sun), and waning is the moon coming closer to the sun. The easiest way (if not the only way) of telling apart the differences between the two is that waxing phases will have the lit up side on the right, whereas waning will have the lit up side on the left.