The Bulavin Rebellion was successful because the Russian Government limited the power of the Cossacks politically and economically causing them to focus socially on improving the unkind treatment towards the peasant life.
The Bulavin Rebellion was led by Kondraty Bulavin, a democratically elected Ataman of Don Cossacks. The rebellion was triggered by a number of tensions between the Imperial government under Peter I of Russia, the Cossacks, and Russian peasants fleeing from serfdom in Russia to gain freedom during the Don area.
The Cossacks are a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Ukraine and in Russia.
In response to the uprising, The Russian Government tightened their grip on the Cossack states, causing some 2000 under Ignat Nekrasov to flee for protection of the Crimean Khanate. Descendants of these Nekrasovites would relocate to Anatolia, and settle near Constantinople.
The Russian government limited the power and independence of the Cossacks, at the same time it controlled the border region to prevent serfs from escaping beyond the Don.
The Bulavin Rebellion targeted against an imposing governmental institution and were driven by strong hostility for the miserable state of peasant life.