Kathmandu, Nepal By: Amber Howard, Anthony Bowen, Richard felicano, amy Jáuregui-Tovar

The tragic story of Kathmandu, Nepal: In April, 25, 2015, an earthquake of a magnitude of 7.8 struck in the broad daylight in Nepal. The earthquake's center of destruction was in Kathmandu, Nepal. There the damage was even more severe, and much more lives were lost there. Over 9,000 people died from the disaster, and over 22,000 were injured. After the disaster struck, over 600,000 buildings and homes were destroyed, nearby cities and towns were severely damaged or completely destroyed; you couldn't even walk over the debris all over the area, it didn't matter if you were trying to look for someone, you just couldn't help at all. The aftermath of this disaster was very tragic, many people were in grief due to losing a loved one, or being very seriously injured.

This is a Nepali couple who are crying and are possibly thinking about their loved ones, and the people who are suffering during that time.

Why did Nepal have many casualties? Since Nepal is a poor country with a few list of emergency plans, they didn't have much cranes or lots of machines to help those who are trapped in the ground. That's why many people died. The citizens of Nepal just couldn't afford hefty fees to help save a loved one, and at times it wasn't all successful when trying to help someone to escape (from buildings and from debris fallen on top of them). Also, since there was no active law enforcement available, not many people could file for insurance in order to receive a home or transportation. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced to live in poverty. Little or no people survived in towns close to Kathmandu (and in Kathmandu). Many people were separated from their families, since they couldn't find their family members, or the loss of life in their families.

This is a group of Nepali volunteers who are under stressing moments from trying to help a young man who is dying. You can see that there isn't much medical personnel, there is just citizens helping each other out.

This tragic natural disaster inspired us to make a plan for emergency aids and evacuation for Kathmandu, Nepal and surrounding areas. We will explain many ways in which the people there can survive and help the injured when another dangerous natural disaster (or geohazard) occurs.

This is a group of people who are collecting donated food for the victims of Nepal.

Our plan for the list of geohazards below: Mudslides, Landslides, Flooding, and Tsunamis.

When a tsunami (and the result of it is severe flooding) hits, what people can do is just run until they can go on high remote areas. They will receive lots of help though, since we will have medical personnel managing boats and ships to help find bodies and save other injured people. If they seem to not remove something heavy off a person while in a boat, they should have lots of tools to help them; such as strong metal handles for the person to hold on, or we could even bring helicopters (if the situation is very serious and difficult) over them and people can go down and help the person to be free, before mudslides, and landslides occur and can eventually seriously injure the person, or even cause death to him.

This is a picture of volunteering men who are helping people flee away from the flooding, this is a picture of when the tsunami of Japan hit in 2011.

This is our plan for Mudslides and Landslides: Mudslides can cause quick sand at times, and trying to walk over mud and debris at the same time is very hard. During mudslides and landslides, the majority of the people in it get seriously hurt, and die because during those slides, mud and land can go on top of them and eventually suffocate them to death, or during the slide, they could have a arm or a leg being stuck, and while everything is sliding, they could break a bone and literally have their ligaments or a whole body part ripped, which could be outstandingly painful. When a mudslide/landslide occurs, medical personnel should move quickly, finding people buried in mud, or running and yelling for their names. They should use small shovels when finding buried people, so no further injury can occur. Teamwork is key for helping people during this geohazard (and other geohazard occurrences).

This is a massive mudslide that occurred in Nepal killed over 16 people.

Now we will explain what should the people should have prepared when an emergency natural disaster occurs.

This is an example of a survival kit and what it should contain.

Things that are needed in such a survival kit may include: Food, Water, Flashlight, First Aid Kit, Batteries, Mask, Glowsticks, Radio, Can Opener, Clothing, Hygeine Supplies, Water Purifier, Matches/Firestarter, Medicine, Knife, Blankets, Whistle, Rope, Medications and a Tent.

Supplies.

Backpack/Bag: A backpack may be a sort of second-thought item when creating a survival kit, but it is absolutely essential. When you think about it, you need a way to transport you things. On multiple occasions, you may have to pack up and move away from a potentially dangerous situation or area and without a bag to carry your things in, it will be extremely difficult.

Water Bottles: As you could imagine, water is a very important resource, especially in a disaster. It can be used to cook, wash, clean, or help to sterilize minor wounds and injuries, like burns or scratches.

Knife/Multi-Purpose Tool: Always pack a knife, machete, hatchet or any multi-purpose tool in your survival kit, as it may save your life. It can be used to make shelter if you have not found any, or brought as a weapon (what I mean by "weapon" is that when any wildlife attacks, or you want to kill an animal for consuming meanings, it would be much easier and safer to carry a weapon). The blade can also be heated and used to cauterize bad open wounds.

Canned/Dried Food: Always prepare at least five days worth of canned or dried food per person in case of this kind of disaster. You most likely will not be able to find anything edible in the mud and rubble caused by the earthquake.

Examples.

Flashlight/Lantern: You'll need a light-source to find your way out of the rubble, if you are trapped inside of your home by a mudslide, earthquake or other geographic disaster. Without one, it will be very difficult to even see what you are doing.

Rope: It should be obvious why rope would be important during geohazards. A rope could be used to pull a loved one from an are that they could not escape themselves. Rope could also help search teams reach hard-to-get places to find those who are trapped.

Can Opener: Now, this may already be on your multi-purpose tool, but if it isn't or you have decided on taking a knife instead, it would be wise to pack one of these. They function as the name says and may come in handy if your cans are like most, they don't have pop tabs.

Tent: If your home happens to have been destroyed by the natural disaster, it would be a great to have a tent packed. It would obviously provide you shelter, while the wreckage is searched.

More examples.

Life Vest: A life vest could be the difference between life and death if a flood or tsunami was to rush a town or village. This often happens with the aftershock of earthquakes.

Radio: Having a radio could be a huge help because it would be able to warn you of secondary disasters, and of search teams that may help find you or someone you love if you are torn apart.

Medications: Having your required medications is obviously a very important part of a survival kit, because if you need your medications to keep from having a heart attack or allergic reactions, a stressful time like this would be when it is most needed.

Whistle: Though this may not seem like a very important supply, it most certainly is. If trapped in the rubble of your home, a whilstle could signal to searchers where you are and help them to find you before you are hurt.

For a way in and out we will advise the city and Kathmandu to take Purano Nailkap because it can serve a way in and out. It's also good because there is other stuff in the way to block mudslides and other events.

I will now show you important phone numbers below. These phone numbers are important because you will need to use them when in an emergency. I got these phone numbers from: www.visitnepal.com, which I will cite their sources at the bottom of this presentation.

This list of organization's phone numbers are very important because they can be used to help save someone's life, or even your life (if you are in Nepal).

Now that you understand what is needed for the key essential of life, and survival during a natural disaster in Nepal, I will now add additional websites in which you can actually help out Nepalis in real life. Here are some certified websites in which you can visit and donate money to help the refugees of Nepal, and help organizations provide food, water resources, and shelter for the victims.

Here are the websites: https://internationalmedicalcorps.org/nepal-earthquake https://www.guidestar.org/profile/76-0404723

International medical corps: Helping heal Nepal . (n.d.). Retrieved from https://internationalmedicalcorps.org/nepal-earthquake. This is a picture of a overseas volunteer medical personnel who is giving free health care to this little Nepali boy.
  • Citations (websites used for this entire presentation).
  • What are geohazards? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.learnz.org.nz/geohazards152/what-are-geohazards.
  • Copernicus: Emergency management services . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://emergency.copernicus.eu/mapping/list-of-components/EMSN012/EVACUATIONCONTINGENCYSCENARIO/ALL.
  • Important Phone Numbers . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.visitnepal.com/travelers_guide/important_numbers.php.
  • Raffetery, J. F. (n.d.). Nepal Earthquake of 2015. Retrieved November 9, 2016, from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Nepal-earthquake-of-2015
  • Geohazards International . (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.guidestar.org/profile/76-0404723.
  • International medical corps: Helping heal Nepal . (n.d.). Retrieved from https://internationalmedicalcorps.org/nepal-earthquake

How do you purify water? The way to purify water is to remove the toxins, bacteria, and diseases inside of the water to make it purified and to have it drinkable or potable.

Factory to where and how your water gets purified

What are different ways to purify water? The different ways to purify water are heating, distillation, boiling, pasteurizing, chemical treatment, chlorine bleach, iodine, calcium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide tablets, mechanical filtration, and ultraviolet light.

A heating water system to purify your water

How are theses differences able to purify water? 1) Heating is one of the first and most well-known ways of purifying water, or anything else that you're going to drink such as milk or juice, is to heat it. There are 2 primary ways to kill bacteria and other impurities in your water so that you can drink it safely.

A factory that heats up your water to have it purified

2) Distillation is the method that uses a ton of fuel but produces extremely pure water. It requires boiling the water in an enclosed container and using a hose or other transportation device to allow the stream to escape, convert back to water, and collect in a clean container. Distillation is highly effective but also one of the more complicated ways of purifying water.

This distillation heats up your water to make it drinkable

3) Boiling is the surest way to sanitize your water but it may not be realistic if your energy sources are limited. If you opt to boil, it takes anywhere from 3-12 minutes depending upon your elevation to kill pathogens and you're going to lose part of the water to condensation. For most elevations, 3-5 minutes will suffice but the higher you are, the longer you need to boil it because water boils at a lower temperature at higher elevations. If you choose to boil your water, do so when you're cooking or doing other things that require fuel in order to save as much as possible. Again, this is one of the easiest ways of purifying water as long as you have a heating source.

Boiling your water gets your water drinkable

4) Pasteurizing is heating your water to 160 degrees for a minimum of 6 minutes will kill pathogens and parasites in water. This uses less fuel than boiling or can even be performed using solar heating devices that you can make at home in a pinch.

Pasteurizing your water to be drinkable

5) Chemical Treatment is treating your water with chemicals that kill bacteria, viruses, parasites and other impurities is probably the best way to ensure that it's safe to drink. The downfall to using chemicals is that you can often taste them in the water. You also need to know how much to use because if you use too little, it won't purify water but if you use too much, it can make you ill. Unless otherwise stated, you should let your water sit for at least 30 minutes in order to give the chemical time to work.

Chemicals being put into your water for water to be drinkable

6) Chlorine Bleach is just standard household bleach (sodium hypochlorite) and is an integral part of your emergency supply kit became it kills everything. Use the unscented kind and simply add 16 drops (1/4 teaspoon) to 1 gallon of clear water or 8 drops (1/8 teaspoon) per gallon of clear water. Rotate your bleach because it begins to degrade after 6 months or so.

7)Iodine is that even though it changes the color and taste, 2% iodine tincture can be used safely and effectively to purify water as well as clean wounds. Use the same amount of iodine as you would bleach. Iodine kills bacteria and viruses but is only moderately effective against disease-causing protozoa. You can also buy iodine tablets.

8) Calcium Hypochlorite is also known as Pool Shock, calcium hypochlorite has no expiration and doesn't lose effectiveness. It's also extremely inexpensive. For about $5 you can get enough to treat 10,000 gallons of water. Make sure that you buy a brand that only has 73% or greater calcium hypochlorite and inert ingredients; no other chemicals or algaecides. Make a solution using 1/2 teaspoon dry granules to one gallon of water and label this poison. Dissolve the granules in the water and then use 1/8 cup of the solution per gallon of water. This has about the same germ-killing power of bleach as it's just an alternative chlorine product.

9) Chlorine Dioxide Tablets is that these are a modern solution to water purification. They work well to kill all the bad stuff in your water without adding any bad taste or smell. They're also portable and have no expiration date. The downside is that they take 4 hours to purify your water but they are extremely effective as well as being easy to store and portable.

10) Mechanical Filtration may be used independently or in conjunction with either heat or chemical purification methods. The concept is simple: the water runs through a medium such as sand, charcoal, silver, and/or ceramic that strains out debris and contaminants. They come in many different forms including: a) Personal devices such as water bottles. b) Point-of-use filtration that's attached to your sink. c) Hand-held pump devices. d) Homemade devices built to meet filtration needs of the user. e) Commercially-produced units that are created to meet water needs when municipal water isn't available. These come in different sizes and styles as well. Of the top 5 ways of purifying water, this is the easiest and most effective.

How the water is being purified

11) Ultraviolet Light is that there are several different types of water purification devices that use ultraviolet light to kill pathogens in water. In order to use this method effectively, the water needs to be clear. Homemade versions can be found all over the internet. UV light treatment doesn't kill viruses. Among the various ways of purifying water, this method is the least effective in terms of killing all the harmful pathogens. There are many different types of water purification methods and which one that you choose is entirely dependent upon your filtration needs. Some simply filter out impurities while others purify your water as well as most chemicals. There are also reverse osmosis machines available but they're not really efficient in an emergency because they depend upon high water pressure to be effective. They're a great way to conserve water on a standard daily basis though!

Citations: http://www.nestle-waters.com/brands/water-quality/purified-water

Credits:

Created with images by Global X - "Earthquake Survival Kit" • Boke9a - "hiking backpack hiking nature" • Brian Smithson (Old Geordie) - "Water" • raffaelesergi1977 - "Fox knife" • karenandbrademerson - "canning" • CITYEDV - "flashlight maglite light" • VasenkaPhotography - "Can Opener" • skeeze - "camping night tent" • Kham Tran - "Rope" • France1978 - "Vintage TMK 10-Transistor AM Radio, Made in Japan" • katerha - "Whistle" • stevepb - "thermometer headache pain" • Mads Boedker - "Sverre in Life vest (edited focus/tint)" • Middle East Children's Alliance - "Water Tanks at Bureij Girls School" • Tama66 - "wheel valve heating" • PEO, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives - "Blue Grass Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant Utility Building" • brankomaster - "Kazan/ cauldron/sljive/plums/rakija" • jimmyharris - "Boiling water over the fire" • syvwlch - "Flan: Cooking" • PEO, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives - "Blue Grass Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant Supercritical Water Oxidation Processing Building" • Sustainable sanitation - "Sludge Draining"

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