Rivalry in the Northwest
- In the early 1800's, four nations claimed the land known as the Oregon Country
- The U.S. based its claim on Robert Gray's discovery of the Columbia River in 1792 and the Lewis and Clark expidition
- Many Americas wanted control of Oregon to gain access to the Pacific Ocean.
- In 1818 John Adams worked our a joint occupation with Great Britain. This meant that people from both the United States and Great Britain could settle there.
Mountain Men in Oregon
- In 1808, John Astor organized the American fur company, which traded in the East Coast, the Pacific North West, and China.
- Over time mountain men could no longer make a living by trapping due to over trapping. So some moved to Oregon and settled in farms.
- In the 1830's, the mountain men made paths from east-to-west that played a major role in western settlement.
What did America gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty? We gained Oregon from Spain and
Oregon and Manifest Destiny- Marcus and Narcissa Whitman
- Marcus and Narcissa were some of the first settlers who were missionaries in 1836, who built a mission in Oregon to convert the Cayuse to Christianity.
- These new settlers brought a disease called measles, in which the Native Americans had never been exposed to and killed many Cayuse children. This made the natives attack and kill the Whitman's and 11 others in their group.
Along the Oregon Trail
- Even after the Whitman massacre, many emigrants moved to Oregon because of the fertile soil.
- In 1843 about a thousand emigrants made the 2,000 mile journey. These people would pack up their stuff and put them in wagons to leave for Oregon.
- Many followed across the Great Plains, along the Platte River, and through the South Pass of the Rock Mountains.
America Seeks Its Manifest Destiny
- Since the colonial time, Americans believed their nation's mission was to serve as a model of freedom and democracy, but that vision changed in the 1800's.
- Many Americans believed that they were going to spread freedom by settling the entire continent. In 1819, John Quincy Adams expressed what many Americans were thinking when he said expansion to the Pacific was as certain as the Mississippi River flowing to the sea.
- In the 1840's John O'Sullivan expressed in more specific words the idea of a national mission. O'Sullivan declared it was America's "Manifest Destiny to overspread and to possess the whole continent which Providence has given us.
"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight
- Many Americans wanted the U.S. to take all of Oregon; in the 1844 election James K. Polk, the democratic nominee, supported the many Americans desire.
- The democrats used the slogan, "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight" referring to the line of latitude they wanted the nations northern border in Oregon.
- Polk was focused on acquiring Oregon, but Britain didn't accept the 54 40 degrees north latitude. So they compromised and set the boundary at 49 degrees north, which the British rejected 21 years before.
How did Polk's view differ from Clay's in the 1844 election? Polk wanted to claim all of Oregon like many other Americans did, and Clay didn't, which is how Polk won the election of 1844.
Lesson 2: Statehood for Florida and Texas
How did Florida become a state? Iowa was wanting to end slavery in their state which helped Florida become a state when John Tyler signed the statehood bill on March 3, 1845.
- On July 17, 1821, Spain gave Florida to the United States.
- In 1824 Tallahassee became the territorial capital. It was located between St. Augustine and Pensacola, Florida's major cities at that time.
- Many planters from Georgia, Virginia, and the Carolina's due to the heavy use of the soil which wore it out. So they left their old plantations and moved to new ones in Florida.
The Territory Grows
- In 1837 the population in Florida was reported at 48,000, the enslaved people made over half of the population.
- They held a vote, and they had top form a state constitution and submit it to the U.S. Congress.
- Florida's desire to become a slave state caused difficulties because Congress had to maintain an equal amount of free states to slave states.
Statehood for Florida
- It took six years for President Tyler to honor Florida's wish, it happened when Iowa wanted to be a free state. On March 3, 1845, Florida became the twenty-seventh state in the United States.
What caused the population of Florida to grow? Plantation owners moved to Florida and brought slaves and then they became a slave state and were allowed to bring in more slaves to work on there plantations.
- In 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain and they controlled what is now Texas.
- Mexico allowed Americans to go there and settle with there families, but before long the Americans outnumbered the Tejanos.
- In 1830 the closed their borders so nobody could settle here. Then conflict grew in 1835
- In 1835 the Texans only had about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's army of several thousand. The Texans did have good leaders such as, Davy Crockett, Commander William B. Travis, and a tough Texan named Jim Bowie.
- The Texans kept the Alamo through 13 days of attacks, they kept Santa Anna's army at bay with rifle fire.
- The army had brought cannons and the defenders had lost the Alamo, but the bought the Texans time to gather troops and supplies. They also provided them with a rallying cry: "Remember the Alamo!"
Texas Declares Its Independence
- During the siege if the Alamo leaders met and the Tejanos were unhappy with Mexican rule. On March 2, 1836-four days before the fall of the Alamo-they declared independence.
- The Texans had 900 soldiers and launched a surprise attack on Santa Anna and killed more than 600, but captured about 700 of his men. They yelled "Remember the Alamo throught
Lone Star Republic
- In September of 1836, the Texans elected Sam Houston as their president.
- Houston sent a delegation to Washington D.C., so they could take control of Texas, But Andrew Jackson refused to annex it.
Texas Becomes a State
- Many of the Texans wanted to join the United States, But President Martin Van Buren did not want to go to war with Mexico.
- After Polk won in 1845 presidential campaign, when Congress passed the resolution to annex Texas. The joined the Union in 1845.
Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas? The U.S. did not want to go to war with Mexico and it would unbalance the free states and slave states.
Lesson 3: War With Mexico
How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory?
The New Mexico Territory
- In the 1500's Spanish Conquistadors , they made New mexico part of their territory and founded the Santa Fe Colony in 1610. Soon Spanish missionaries followed them into the area.
- Mexico and New Mexico won its independence from the Spanish in 1821. Before then, the Spanish tried to keep Americans from the Santa Fe Trail.
- The Santa Fe Trail started near Independence, Missouri, which was then on the western edge of the United States.
How did William Becknell influence the american settlement of New Mexico? He helped influence the settlement by his trail not being so hard to navigate and became a trade route later on.
California's Spanish Culture
- After Mexico won independence from Spain, California became a Mexican state. Mexico bought mission lands and set up ranches where Native Americans worked for food and shelter.
- In 1880 many Americans reached California. Eventually they began talking about adding California to the Union.
- President James K. Polk was determined to get California and New Mexico territories from Mexico. After they refused to sell them he was going to get them from starting a war with Mexico.
- The relationship between the two countries were not friendly. That's why the U.S. said that the Rio Grande was the Mexico-United States border. But the Mexican government disagreed with them.
- To bring pressure Polk sent an army to the Rio Grande River, but the Mexicans said that they invaded their territory. So on May 13, 1846, Congress passed a declaration for us to attack Mexico.
- Even before the war, American settlers began uprising . They were encouraged by general John C. Fremont.
- By overcoming the weak Mexican presence in California, the U.S. won and California became a state on June 14, 1846.
- When Mexico was defeated on February 2, 184, Mexico's leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. They gave up more than 500,000 square miles of land.
- Mexico accepted the United States proposal for the Rio Grande as the Texas border.
Lesson 4: California and Utah
How did the discovery of gold help California? It helped them develop have better agricultural and trade.
California Gold Rush
- Gold was first discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848, people from all over the globe traveled here to see if they could collect any.
- Americans made up about 80% of the forty-niners. Other came from, Asia, China, South America, and other places across the world.