來源：The Washington Post, Dec. 26, 2019
China’s top quantum scientist has ties to the country’s defense companies
Prominent Chinese physicist runs a team that also collaborates with Western universities.
The head of China’s quantum-technology program has links to Chinese defense contractors, even as he and his team maintain research ties with Western universities, according to documents identified by a U.S. security company.
Pan Jian-Wei, a physicist known in China as the “father of quantum,” helps oversee the country’s efforts to harness quantum particles to build powerful computers and tools for processing information. Western countries are also hotly pursuing quantum research, which has potential commercial and military applications.
In an email exchange with The Washington Post this summer, Pan suggested that he and his university research team don’t assist Chinese military efforts to develop quantum technology.
But Strider Technologies, a Washington-area security company that does corporate intelligence work, has identified publicly available Chinese-language documents that connect Pan to large Chinese defense contractors.
但是， 一個位於美國華盛頓地區負責企業情報工作的安保公司，Strider 科技公司，從很多公開的中文文件中找到了潘和中共軍方合作的證明。
Strider found that a state-owned shipbuilder of military and civilian vessels appointed Pan as deputy director of its science and technology committee in 2017. Strider also found that Pan last year signed an agreement committing his institution, the University of Science and Technology of China, to conduct quantum research with a state-owned defense contractor. MIT Technology Review first reported details of Strider’s findings.
根據Strider的報告，一個中共國擁有的軍用民用造船廠於2017年任命潘為科學技術委員會副主任。同時，Strider還發現，潘曾經代表中國科技大學和中共國國有的國防承建商簽署了共同研究量子技術的協議 - 麻省理工學院技術評論首先報導了Strider發現的細節。
Bill Priestap, a member of Strider’s board who was assistant director of the FBI’s counterintelligence division from 2015 to 2018, said the research should serve as a warning to Western universities that collaborate with Chinese institutions.
Strider的董事並在2015-2018曾任美國聯邦調查局反情報部門助理主任的比爾·普里斯塔普 (Bill Priestap)說，這份報告应该為与中共國合作的西方大學敲響了警鐘。
“Not everyone recruited understands the full extent of how China will use their contributions,” Priestap said in an interview. “No matter how China represents a research partnership, it will use the knowledge gained however it desires — economically, of course, but also in a military and intelligence sense.”
In an email, Pan downplayed the significance of the documents, saying they did not mean that he or his researchers were supporting the development of military technology. “We are focused on the development of quantum information technology itself. Whether these technologies would be used in the military field is not my business and out of our control,” Pan said.
“As quantum information technology still has a long way to go for applications to benefit all humans, we believe that extensive and open international cooperation is necessary,” he added.
Scientists are using quantum technology to develop new kinds of computers and communications networks, and new sensors for imaging and measuring objects. In the commercial world, quantum computers could one day solve intractable problems, such as identifying new chemical compounds to treat diseases. In the military realm, quantum computers may eventually be able to break existing forms of encryption, while other quantum technology could generate powerful new radars and navigation systems.
Pan, 49, has gained international recognition for his research in the field. In 2017, the journal Nature named him one of “10 people who mattered this year.”
現年49歲的潘先生，因其在該領域的研究而獲得國際認可。在 2017年，《自然》雜誌將他評為 “年度最重要的10個人” 之一。
Physicists from the University of Calgary and Louisiana State University spend several weeks or months a year as visiting faculty members in Pan’s group at USTC in Shanghai.
Pan and his team also have extensive connections to Germany’s Heidelberg University, where Pan established a research lab in 2003 before moving much of the lab to China in 2009, according to the university. Pan still serves as an honorary professor at Heidelberg, overseeing a quantum research lab there. About a third of the 29 faculty members in Pan’s quantum-physics group at USTC have studied or taught at Heidelberg, according to the group’s website.
Matthias Weidemüller, a physics professor at Heidelberg, spends two months each year as a part-time professor at USTC in Shanghai, running his own quantum-research lab in Pan’s group. The lab studies quantum simulation.
Prof. Dr. Matthias Weidemüller - Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg
In an email, Weidemüller said his lab in China sets its own agenda and acts in a “totally independent” manner. He said he has never pursued any joint research with Pan, whom he called a “charismatic scientist and science manager” who has “inspired (and still inspires) literally hundreds of gifted young researchers to join his activities.”
Weidemüller said: “I have no information whatsoever on applications of quantum technologies in the defense or military sector, neither in Europe, the U.S. or China. It goes against my personal ethics to be involved directly or indirectly in any such kind of activities。”
Heidelberg University said its cooperation with USTC is “purely based on the exchange of scientists and scientific knowledge addressing problems of fundamental quantum science.”
“All results obtained within this cooperation are published in peer-reviewed international journals,” the university said.
“There is no evidence whatsoever that the scientific research performed at Heidelberg University, or within the cooperation between Heidelberg University and USTC, has led directly or indirectly to military applications or the development of China’s military capabilities," the university added.
Strider found the details about Pan’s defense-industry connections in Chinese-language publications posted online by USTC, a defense contractor and state-controlled media. The publications include photos of Pan attending meetings with one defense contractor and signing a research agreement with another.
Eric Levesque, co-founder and chief strategy officer of Strider, said his company’s findings show “the threat to open academic collaboration posed by China’s long-term, intentional strategy of exploiting Western innovation systems to achieve its national objectives.”
Eric Levesque 是Strider科技的創始人與首席戰略官。他說，他的公司調查發現“中國長期利用西方創新系統來達成國家目標已經對開放的學術合作構成威脅。”
Pan disputed the accusation of exploitation, saying that cooperation across borders is an accepted norm in science these days.
Strider was founded this year with $2 million in funding from investors including DataTribe, a Maryland incubator that specializes in start-ups with experience in the intelligence community.
China’s growing military ambitions, and its repression of ethnic minorities at home, are causing some U.S. officials and lawmakers to question aspects of U.S. research cooperation with China, despite the benefits it has brought. Research ties have deepened as the United States has hosted a growing number of Chinese graduate students — 133,000 in the last academic year, a tripling from 20 years ago, according to the Institute of International Education — and as China has recruited Western scientists to its labs through its Thousand Talents program.
中共國日益膨脹的軍事野心，及其對國內少數民族的壓迫，引起了美國官員和議員對於中美研究合作的質疑，儘管美國也從中獲益。隨著美國接納了越來越多的中國研究生，研究合作也日益加深。 根據國際教育機構的統計，上一个學年有13萬3000名學生，是20年前的三倍。 同時中共國也通過千人計畫招募了西方科學家來加入他們的實驗室。
In April 2018, Pan signed a strategic cooperation agreement committing USTC to work with a large state-owned defense contractor, China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, or CETC, according to an article posted on USTC’s site. The article said USTC and CETC would cooperate on a variety of science projects, including jointly establishing labs to research quantum detection and quantum communication devices.
The report includes a photo of Pan signing the agreement alongside Wu Manqing, deputy general manager of CETC. Behind them stands Wang Xiaomo, a radar expert known as the father of China’s early warning aircraft system, according to the USTC article.
Pan, who is also executive vice president of USTC, in addition to running his quantum-research group, said he signed the agreement “on behalf of USTC as the executive vice president, not on behalf of my research team.”
“According to the agreement, the cooperation between USTC and CETC is mainly in talent training and scientific consultation. As a university, this is very normal,” Pan said. CETC declined to comment.
In September 2017, a state-owned builder of military and civilian ships hired, Pan as deputy director of its science and technology committee, according to a 2018 report published by state-controlled media.
At the same time, the company, China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation, or CSIC, signed an agreement with USTC to jointly establish three labs to focus on quantum navigation, quantum communication and quantum detection, according to the state-media article. CSIC planned to invest $42 million in the labs, according to the report.
Two CSIC officials, Fan Guoping and Li Jiahua, are cited in the article saying that CSIC has carried out research cooperation with Pan’s USTC team in quantum navigation, quantum communication and quantum detection, in order to “seize the commanding heights” of quantum information technology in naval defense applications.
Fan is quoted saying that quantum-navigation technology would free nuclear submarines from satellite navigation, allowing them to stay hidden underwater for longer periods of time, “significantly increasing the concealed combat capabilities of these strategic submarines.”
Pan confirmed that he is deputy director of CSIC’s science and technology committee, saying his “purpose is to help CSIC to understand quantum information technology, a field which is unfamiliar to them.”
“The only thing I did after taking this position was to give them a science lecture,” Pan said. “If this were to be considered as serving the military, then I also introduced the development of China’s quantum information sciences through a conference at the invitation of the U.S. Department of Energy in March this year. Will you conclude that I also serve the military of the U.S.?”
Pan said Fan’s remarks in the article “greatly exaggerated the relevant cooperation content with inaccurate facts.”
Pan said USTC has contacted CSIC to demand that they “correct the factually incorrect statements, and to strictly follow the actual status of the implementation of the agreement when publishing any news in the future.”
CSIC didn’t respond to a request for comment.
Pan said he ultimately had to deliver his talk at the Department of Energy conference by webcast, because he had trouble getting a U.S. visa. “Usually, after waiting for about a month, I can obtain a valid one-year and multiple entry visa,” Pan wrote by email. “However, this time the waiting lasted for more than 4 months, and I was still waiting for the visa when I received the [conference] invitation,” he said.
“What’s more, what I finally got was a three-month-valid and single-entry visa, which prevented me from several planned academic [trips] to the United States in the year of 2019,” Pan wrote. He added that he wasn’t able to view talks by U.S. and Canadian scientists during the conference because of “some technical problem,” and was told later he couldn’t receive copies of the talks because of “U.S. export control issues.” The Department of Energy declined to comment on that.
Barry Sanders, a Canadian physicist from the University of Calgary, spends two to three months a year as a visiting professor in Pan’s group at USTC, a position he got through China’s Thousand Talents recruitment program. Sanders said he is focused on furthering basic quantum research and publishing his work in scientific journals.
Barry Sanders - University of Calgary
“My clear mission is, I’m involved with scientists around the world, independent of the politics of the country. If I can work with scientists anywhere to help them understand and appreciate basic science and advance it, I like to help,” he said.
“If any activity I do is political or military, then I would have nothing to do with that,” Sanders added.
Jonathan Dowling, a Louisiana State University physicist who spends about six weeks or less a year as a visiting faculty member in Pan’s group at USTC, said he has “a number of scientific collaborators in China," including at New York University’s Shanghai campus. Dowling is a visiting member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which allows him to visit a variety of universities, he said.
路易斯安那州立大學物理學家喬納森·道林（Jonathan Dowling）每年大約花六週到一年的時間在中科大學潘的小組擔任訪問教授。他說，他“在中國擁有許多科學合作者” ，包括在紐約大學上海校區。他說，他是中國科學院的訪問學者，這個身份使他可以訪問中共國的各個大學。
Jonathan Dowling - Louisiana State University
“We work only on basic research that is published in the open literature,” Dowling said. “I meet regularly with folks from the U.S. government to ensure that I follow all policies and regulations that pertain to my interactions with Chinese scientists and institutions.”
道林 (Dowling) 說：“我們僅致力在公開文獻中發表的基礎研究。” “我定期與來自美國政府的人會面，以確保我遵守與中國科學家和學術機構的互動方面有關的所有政策和法規。”