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被邪惡蠶食的民主 【中英對照翻譯】

來源:The Washington Post, Dec. 26, 2019

作者:Jeanne Whalen

China’s top quantum scientist has ties to the country’s defense companies

中國頂級量子科學家和中國國防部的公司有瓜葛

Prominent Chinese physicist runs a team that also collaborates with Western universities.

著名中國物理學家管理的團隊同時在與西方一些大學合作

The head of China’s quantum-technology program has links to Chinese defense contractors, even as he and his team maintain research ties with Western universities, according to documents identified by a U.S. security company.

據一家美國安全公司的檔指出,中共量子科技研究中心負責人與中共國國防承包商有密切的往來,而他和他的團隊同時又和西方的大學保持著學術聯繫。

Pan Jian-Wei, a physicist known in China as the “father of quantum,” helps oversee the country’s efforts to harness quantum particles to build powerful computers and tools for processing information. Western countries are also hotly pursuing quantum research, which has potential commercial and military applications.

在中共國被稱為”量子之父“的物理學家潘建偉,負責幫中共國執行了使用量子(粒子)技術製造強大計算機和其他工具來處理大數據的任務。西方國家也正熱衷於[对]這些具有潛在商業和軍事用途的量子技術進行研究。

潘建偉

In an email exchange with The Washington Post this summer, Pan suggested that he and his university research team don’t assist Chinese military efforts to develop quantum technology.

在今年夏天發給《美國華盛頓郵報》的一封電郵中,潘聲稱他和他的研究團隊從未協助中共國軍方發展量子技術。

But Strider Technologies, a Washington-area security company that does corporate intelligence work, has identified publicly available Chinese-language documents that connect Pan to large Chinese defense contractors.

但是, 一個位於美國華盛頓地區負責企業情報工作的安保公司,Strider 科技公司,從很多公開的中文文件中找到了潘和中共軍方合作的證明。

Strider found that a state-owned shipbuilder of military and civilian vessels appointed Pan as deputy director of its science and technology committee in 2017. Strider also found that Pan last year signed an agreement committing his institution, the University of Science and Technology of China, to conduct quantum research with a state-owned defense contractor. MIT Technology Review first reported details of Strider’s findings.

根據Strider的報告,一個中共國擁有的軍用民用造船廠於2017年任命潘為科學技術委員會副主任。同時,Strider還發現,潘曾經代表中國科技大學和中共國國有的國防承建商簽署了共同研究量子技術的協議 - 麻省理工學院技術評論首先報導了Strider發現的細節。

Bill Priestap, a member of Strider’s board who was assistant director of the FBI’s counterintelligence division from 2015 to 2018, said the research should serve as a warning to Western universities that collaborate with Chinese institutions.

Strider的董事並在2015-2018曾任美國聯邦調查局反情報部門助理主任的比爾·普里斯塔普 (Bill Priestap)說,這份報告应该為与中共國合作的西方大學敲響了警鐘。

Bill Priestap

“Not everyone recruited understands the full extent of how China will use their contributions,” Priestap said in an interview. “No matter how China represents a research partnership, it will use the knowledge gained however it desires — economically, of course, but also in a military and intelligence sense.”

他還在接受采訪時說:“並不是每個人都了解中共國將如何利用這些研究發展的貢獻。” “無論中共國如何看待與其研究合作夥伴的關係,它都將會利用所獲得的知識在經濟上,當然也會用在軍事和情報方面。

In an email, Pan downplayed the significance of the documents, saying they did not mean that he or his researchers were supporting the development of military technology. “We are focused on the development of quantum information technology itself. Whether these technologies would be used in the military field is not my business and out of our control,” Pan said.

潘在一封電子郵件中淡化了這些文件的重要性,稱它們的存在並不意味著他或他的研究人員在支持軍事技術的發展。 潘說“我們專注於量子信息技術本身的發展。這些技術是否會用於軍事領域不是我的事,這也不在我們的控制範圍內。”

“As quantum information technology still has a long way to go for applications to benefit all humans, we believe that extensive and open international cooperation is necessary,” he added.

他補充說:“由於量子信息技術在使應用程序惠及全人類方面還有很長的路要走,我們相信,廣泛而開放的國際合作是必要的。”

Scientists are using quantum technology to develop new kinds of computers and communications networks, and new sensors for imaging and measuring objects. In the commercial world, quantum computers could one day solve intractable problems, such as identifying new chemical compounds to treat diseases. In the military realm, quantum computers may eventually be able to break existing forms of encryption, while other quantum technology could generate powerful new radars and navigation systems.

科學家正在使用量子技術來開發新型計算機和通信網絡,以及用於成像和測量物體的新型傳感器。在商業世界中,量子計算機有一天可以解決一些棘手的問題,例如: 鑒定新的化合物來治療疾病。在軍事領域,量子計算機可能打破現有的加密形式,而其他量子技術可能會產生功能強大的新型雷達和導航系統。

Pan, 49, has gained international recognition for his research in the field. In 2017, the journal Nature named him one of “10 people who mattered this year.”

現年49歲的潘先生,因其在該領域的研究而獲得國際認可。在 2017年,《自然》雜誌將他評為 “年度最重要的10個人” 之一。

Physicists from the University of Calgary and Louisiana State University spend several weeks or months a year as visiting faculty members in Pan’s group at USTC in Shanghai.

加拿大卡加里大學和美國路易斯安那州立大學的物理學家們,每年花費數週或數月的時間以訪問教授的身份到上海中國科學技術大學(中科大)潘氏小組從事交流。

Pan and his team also have extensive connections to Germany’s Heidelberg University, where Pan established a research lab in 2003 before moving much of the lab to China in 2009, according to the university. Pan still serves as an honorary professor at Heidelberg, overseeing a quantum research lab there. About a third of the 29 faculty members in Pan’s quantum-physics group at USTC have studied or taught at Heidelberg, according to the group’s website.

潘和他的團隊與德國海德堡大學有著廣泛的聯繫。據海德堡大學稱,潘在2003年在此建立了一個研究實驗室,在2009年將實驗室大部分搬回中國。潘仍然是海德堡大學的名譽教授,並負責管理那裡的量子實驗室。據該系網站稱,潘所在的中國科學技術大學量子物理系的29名教職員中,有三分之一是曾在海德堡大學學習或任教的。

Matthias Weidemüller, a physics professor at Heidelberg, spends two months each year as a part-time professor at USTC in Shanghai, running his own quantum-research lab in Pan’s group. The lab studies quantum simulation.

海德堡大學物理學教授Matthias Weidemüller,每年中有兩個月在中科大上海研究院做兼職教授,在潘的小組內主持自己的量子研究實驗室,研究量子模擬。

Prof. Dr. Matthias Weidemüller - Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg

In an email, Weidemüller said his lab in China sets its own agenda and acts in a “totally independent” manner. He said he has never pursued any joint research with Pan, whom he called a “charismatic scientist and science manager” who has “inspired (and still inspires) literally hundreds of gifted young researchers to join his activities.”

Weidemüller 在一封電子郵件中說,在中國他的實驗室是可以制定自己的研究議程的,並可以“完全獨立”執行的。他從來沒有和潘在研究上有任何交集。他稱潘是具有“超凡魅力的科學家與科學管理者”,潘激勵了(仍在激勵中)上百位有天賦的年輕的研究人員加入他的研究計畫。

Weidemüller said: “I have no information whatsoever on applications of quantum technologies in the defense or military sector, neither in Europe, the U.S. or China. It goes against my personal ethics to be involved directly or indirectly in any such kind of activities。”

Weidemüller說,“我對於量子技術不論是被歐洲,美國,還是被中國應用到國防或軍事方面,是一無所知的。直接或間接參與任何這樣的研究是有違於我個人的道德標準。”

Heidelberg University said its cooperation with USTC is “purely based on the exchange of scientists and scientific knowledge addressing problems of fundamental quantum science.”

海德堡大學稱,與中科大的合作,“純粹是基於解決量子科學基本問題的科學家和科學知識的交流。”

“All results obtained within this cooperation are published in peer-reviewed international journals,” the university said.

海德堡大學稱,“合作中獲得的所有成果均發表在同行評審過的國際期刊上。”

“There is no evidence whatsoever that the scientific research performed at Heidelberg University, or within the cooperation between Heidelberg University and USTC, has led directly or indirectly to military applications or the development of China’s military capabilities," the university added.

“沒有任何證據表明海德堡大學所進行的科學研究,或者是與中科大合作的研究中,直接或間接應用與軍事領域或者幫助中共國發展軍事能力,” 海德堡大學補充道。

Strider found the details about Pan’s defense-industry connections in Chinese-language publications posted online by USTC, a defense contractor and state-controlled media. The publications include photos of Pan attending meetings with one defense contractor and signing a research agreement with another.

斯特雷德(Strider)在中科大在線發布的中文出版物中找到了潘和國防工業關係的詳細信息。這是一個由國防承建商和國家控制的媒體。在出版的刊物中,包括了潘與一家國防承建商開會,以及與另一國防承建商簽署研究協議時的照片。

Eric Levesque, co-founder and chief strategy officer of Strider, said his company’s findings show “the threat to open academic collaboration posed by China’s long-term, intentional strategy of exploiting Western innovation systems to achieve its national objectives.”

Eric Levesque 是Strider科技的創始人與首席戰略官。他說,他的公司調查發現“中國長期利用西方創新系統來達成國家目標已經對開放的學術合作構成威脅。”

Pan disputed the accusation of exploitation, saying that cooperation across borders is an accepted norm in science these days.

潘對於此項指控提出了異議,他說這樣的跨境合作是當今科學界公認的規範。

Strider was founded this year with $2 million in funding from investors including DataTribe, a Maryland incubator that specializes in start-ups with experience in the intelligence community.

Strider在今年創立,並獲得200萬美元的投資,投資者中包括一個在馬里蘭州的企業孵化公司DataTribe,其專注於投資在情報界有經驗的初創公司。

China’s growing military ambitions, and its repression of ethnic minorities at home, are causing some U.S. officials and lawmakers to question aspects of U.S. research cooperation with China, despite the benefits it has brought. Research ties have deepened as the United States has hosted a growing number of Chinese graduate students — 133,000 in the last academic year, a tripling from 20 years ago, according to the Institute of International Education — and as China has recruited Western scientists to its labs through its Thousand Talents program.

中共國日益膨脹的軍事野心,及其對國內少數民族的壓迫,引起了美國官員和議員對於中美研究合作的質疑,儘管美國也從中獲益。隨著美國接納了越來越多的中國研究生,研究合作也日益加深。 根據國際教育機構的統計,上一个學年有13萬3000名學生,是20年前的三倍。 同時中共國也通過千人計畫招募了西方科學家來加入他們的實驗室。

In April 2018, Pan signed a strategic cooperation agreement committing USTC to work with a large state-owned defense contractor, China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, or CETC, according to an article posted on USTC’s site. The article said USTC and CETC would cooperate on a variety of science projects, including jointly establishing labs to research quantum detection and quantum communication devices.

在2018年4月,根據發布在中科大網站上的一篇文章,潘簽署了一份策略合作協議,承諾中科大與一家大型國有國防承建商中國電子科技集團公司-CETC合作。文章還指出,中科大與中國電子科技集團將會在各種科技項目中合作,其中包括聯合建立一個研究量子檢測與量子通信設備的實驗室。

2018-04-28 中國科學技術大學與中國電子科技集團有限公司簽署戰略合作協議

The report includes a photo of Pan signing the agreement alongside Wu Manqing, deputy general manager of CETC. Behind them stands Wang Xiaomo, a radar expert known as the father of China’s early warning aircraft system, according to the USTC article.

此報告包括一張潘伴著中國電科副總經理吳曼青簽署協議的照片。他們身後是王小謨,根據中科大的文章,王是中國雷達專家,早期預警機系統之父。

Pan, who is also executive vice president of USTC, in addition to running his quantum-research group, said he signed the agreement “on behalf of USTC as the executive vice president, not on behalf of my research team.”

潘也是中科大的常務副校長。除了管理他的量子研究小組,潘說他以”常務副校長身份代表中科大而不是代表個人的研究小組” 簽署了該協議。

“According to the agreement, the cooperation between USTC and CETC is mainly in talent training and scientific consultation. As a university, this is very normal,” Pan said. CETC declined to comment.

潘說:“根據協議,中科大與中國電科的合作主要是在人才培訓與科學諮詢方面。作為大學,這是很平常的。” 中國電科拒絕對此作出評論。

In September 2017, a state-owned builder of military and civilian ships hired, Pan as deputy director of its science and technology committee, according to a 2018 report published by state-controlled media.

根據一國屬媒體發布的2018年的報告顯示,在2017年9月,一個國有的軍用民用船舶製造商聘請潘作為科學技術委員會的副主任。

At the same time, the company, China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation, or CSIC, signed an agreement with USTC to jointly establish three labs to focus on quantum navigation, quantum communication and quantum detection, according to the state-media article. CSIC planned to invest $42 million in the labs, according to the report.

同時,根據此國有媒體的文章中報告,這家船舶公司-中國船舶重工集團公司(CSIC)與中科大簽署了一項協議,將共同建立三個實驗室,專注於量子導航,量子通信與量子檢測。中船重工計畫向實驗室投資4200萬美元。

Two CSIC officials, Fan Guoping and Li Jiahua, are cited in the article saying that CSIC has carried out research cooperation with Pan’s USTC team in quantum navigation, quantum communication and quantum detection, in order to “seize the commanding heights” of quantum information technology in naval defense applications.

文章引用了中船重工兩位官員范國平與李佳華(音)的話:“中船重工與潘所在的中科大的研究小組將在量子導航,量子通信與量子檢測方面進行研究合作,以抓住量子信息技術制高點,並應用於海軍防禦。”

Fan is quoted saying that quantum-navigation technology would free nuclear submarines from satellite navigation, allowing them to stay hidden underwater for longer periods of time, “significantly increasing the concealed combat capabilities of these strategic submarines.”

引用範的說法,量子導航將是核潛艇擺脫衛星導航,使它能長時間的隱藏水下,“顯著提高了這些戰略潛艇的隱蔽作戰能力”。

Pan confirmed that he is deputy director of CSIC’s science and technology committee, saying his “purpose is to help CSIC to understand quantum information technology, a field which is unfamiliar to them.”

潘承認他是中船重工科學技術委員會的副主任,並說“他的目的是幫助中船重工理解量子信息技術,因為中船重工對此領域並不熟悉”。

“The only thing I did after taking this position was to give them a science lecture,” Pan said. “If this were to be considered as serving the military, then I also introduced the development of China’s quantum information sciences through a conference at the invitation of the U.S. Department of Energy in March this year. Will you conclude that I also serve the military of the U.S.?”

潘說,“我在此職位的工作僅僅是給他們做科學報告,如果這也被認為是為軍方服務,那麼我還受美國能源部的邀請在會議上介紹過中國量子信息科學的發展狀況,那麼你會說我也在和美國軍方合作嗎?”

Pan said Fan’s remarks in the article “greatly exaggerated the relevant cooperation content with inaccurate facts.”

潘說,範在文章中用不準確的事實“過分誇大了相關合作的內容”。

Pan said USTC has contacted CSIC to demand that they “correct the factually incorrect statements, and to strictly follow the actual status of the implementation of the agreement when publishing any news in the future.”

潘說,中科大已經聯繫了中船重工,要求他們“糾正與事實不符的描述,並在將來要嚴格按照協議實施的實際狀態發布新聞”。

CSIC didn’t respond to a request for comment.

中船重工對此並未回應。

Pan said he ultimately had to deliver his talk at the Department of Energy conference by webcast, because he had trouble getting a U.S. visa. “Usually, after waiting for about a month, I can obtain a valid one-year and multiple entry visa,” Pan wrote by email. “However, this time the waiting lasted for more than 4 months, and I was still waiting for the visa when I received the [conference] invitation,” he said.

潘說,因為他很難獲得美國簽證,他最終不得不使用網絡直播來發表他在能源部會議的演講。潘在電子郵件中寫道:“通常,在等待大約一個月後,我可以獲得有效的一年多次入境簽證。”“但是,這次等待持續了四個多月,而當我收到會議邀請時,我仍在等待簽證。”

“What’s more, what I finally got was a three-month-valid and single-entry visa, which prevented me from several planned academic [trips] to the United States in the year of 2019,” Pan wrote. He added that he wasn’t able to view talks by U.S. and Canadian scientists during the conference because of “some technical problem,” and was told later he couldn’t receive copies of the talks because of “U.S. export control issues.” The Department of Energy declined to comment on that.

潘寫道:“而且,我最終得到的是有效期為三個月的單次入境簽證,這使我無法在2019年參加多項已計劃好的學術旅行。”他補充說,由於“某些技術問題”,他無法在會議期間查看美國和加拿大科學家的演講,後來被告知,由於“美國出口管制問題”,他無法收到演講的副本。會議主辦的能源部拒絕對此發表評論。

Barry Sanders, a Canadian physicist from the University of Calgary, spends two to three months a year as a visiting professor in Pan’s group at USTC, a position he got through China’s Thousand Talents recruitment program. Sanders said he is focused on furthering basic quantum research and publishing his work in scientific journals.

來自卡加里大學的加拿大物理學家巴里·桑德斯(Barry Sanders)每年花兩到三個月的時間擔任中科大潘的小組的客座教授,這一職位是他通過中國的千人招聘計劃獲得的。桑德斯說,他將致力於基礎量子研究的進一步發展,並將其工作發表在科學期刊上。

Barry Sanders - University of Calgary

“My clear mission is, I’m involved with scientists around the world, independent of the politics of the country. If I can work with scientists anywhere to help them understand and appreciate basic science and advance it, I like to help,” he said.

“我的明確使命是,我將在不受政治影響的範圍下與世界各地的科學家一道參與工作。如果我可以與來自各地的科學家合作,可以幫助他們理解和欣賞基礎科學並推動基礎科學發展,那麼我很樂意提供幫助。”

“If any activity I do is political or military, then I would have nothing to do with that,” Sanders added.

桑德斯補充說:“如果我從事的任何活動牽涉政治或軍事活動,那麼我是不會參與的。”

Jonathan Dowling, a Louisiana State University physicist who spends about six weeks or less a year as a visiting faculty member in Pan’s group at USTC, said he has “a number of scientific collaborators in China," including at New York University’s Shanghai campus. Dowling is a visiting member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which allows him to visit a variety of universities, he said.

路易斯安那州立大學物理學家喬納森·道林(Jonathan Dowling)每年大約花六週到一年的時間在中科大學潘的小組擔任訪問教授。他說,他“在中國擁有許多科學合作者” ,包括在紐約大學上海校區。他說,他是中國科學院的訪問學者,這個身份使他可以訪問中共國的各個大學。

Jonathan Dowling - Louisiana State University

“We work only on basic research that is published in the open literature,” Dowling said. “I meet regularly with folks from the U.S. government to ensure that I follow all policies and regulations that pertain to my interactions with Chinese scientists and institutions.”

道林 (Dowling) 說:“我們僅致力在公開文獻中發表的基礎研究。” “我定期與來自美國政府的人會面,以確保我遵守與中國科學家和學術機構的互動方面有關的所有政策和法規。”

新聞來源:https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2019/12/26/chinas-top-quantum-scientist-has-ties-countrys-defense-companies/

新聞翻譯:小王子,ignoreme