Prompt: Analyze and discuss the development of new class structures, new family dynamics and gender roles, and urbanization and city life in industrialized societies.
New Class Structure
During the industrial revolution the middle class started to expand, there became more white collar jobs which let to high wages. Working conditions for the middle class were long and harsh conditions.The working day for a middle class worker was around 10-14 hours. For the upper/ higher class there was a movement to become more educated. They had an idea of an 8 hour work day, 8 hour rest time and 8 hours to do whatever you want. They also had a lyceum movement which movement to educate yourself, this could be done by going to lectures after work was done or borrowing books. There also became a larger media of lecture, meaning newspapers and magazine became a larger medias of communication. “In 1890, Taylor took a job as general manager for the Manufacturing Investment Company, and in 1896, he began working as an independent consulting engineer. It was at this point that he began encountering bitter resistance from managers, who viewed him as a threat to the system they had grown accustomed to; workers, who feared his sometimes brutal mass firings of people whom he deemed superfluous; and unions, which condemned ‘Taylorism’” (doc 1) Frederick Taylor’s ideas revolutionized the world's workforce creating more organized work force.
Gender Roles and Family Life
Family life and work was separated, system structures were adopted as a cultural norm. Women were expected to stay home and raise the children. “Reading material also also mass-produced and sold to different social classes. "Ladies' magazines" emphasized the importance of a woman's role in the home and the value of a well-stocked household and parlor.” (doc 2) Men were expected to work because they were the most paid and children either worked or went to school. Child labor was still common and some kids works was young as 6 years old. Women also started to have less children as they became more expensive to take care of, there also was less living space in urban areas versus rural farms.
political Cartoon about Child Labor
Urbanization and City Life
Urbanization was caused when people started to move to the cities for reasons of : farmers losing land, looking for money to feed their family, cities had more jobs with larger wages than working on the farm. The cities expanded so quickly they didn't have much time to prepare. There were no sanitation rule which cause the poor to have lot of disease. This spread mostly through the lower class. Also because there were no building codes, buildings were often overpopulated which occurred the disease to spread more. There wasn't a powerful police force which allowed more crime to occur. Also because children went to education rates were lower.
Doc 1 : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CdTSZM4pvcg
Doc 2 : https://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/1942143?terms=industrial+revolution+and+social+classes &sType=quick
Doc 3: https://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/316093?terms=frederick+taylor&sType=quick
Doc 4: http://www.rockwell-center.org/2015site/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Nina-Allender-cartoon-1925_001_004.jpg