England is a country in the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to' the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to southwest. England is separate from all the rest of Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south.
The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Paleolithic period, and it became an unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language the Anglican Church, and English law developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The Industrial Revolution started in the 18th century, and trasformed England in the world's first industrialised nation.
England's terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the south west. The capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union.
England's population of over 53 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North west, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.