The education at Mieza ended in 340,while phillip campained against byzantium, He left the 16 year olf prince as regent in pella. phillips genral antipater cautiously but strongly advised alexander , but other generals looked on alexander as a pawn and more easily manged than phillip within a year alex under took his first expedition against the thraican tribe and in 338 he led the companion cavarly and helped his farther smash the athenian theban forces ar chaerona
The brief relastionship and the military cooperation with his farther ended soon after phillip had united all the greek states expect sparta ,over which phillip then governed as a miltary leader . When phillip married cleo , the daughter of his genreal attalus ,lived in epirus with olympias , alexander with his mother and his cloest friends fled macedon and lived in eprus with olympias family until demaratus of corinth brought about a reconcilation between farther and son .
The early life !
Alexander the Great was born in the Pella region of Macedonia on July 20, 356 B.C., to parents King Philip II of Macedon and Queen Olympia, daughter of King Neoptolemus. The young prince and his sister were raised in Pella's royal court. Growing up, the dark-eyed and curly-headed Alexander hardly ever saw his father, who spent most of his time engaged in military campaigns and extra-marital affairs. Although Olympia served as a powerful role model for the boy, Alexander grew to resent his father's absence and philandering.
Alexander received his earliest education under the tutelage of his relative, the stern Leonidas of Epirus. Leonidas, who had been hired by King Phillip to teach Alexander math, horsemanship and archery, struggled to control his rebellious student. Alexander's next tutor was Lysimachus, who used role-playing to capture the restless boy's attention. Alexander particularly delighted in impersonating the warrior Achilles.
Campaigns and Conquests
Alexander was nearing the end of his northern campaign, he was delivered the news that Thebes, a Greek city-state, had forced out the Macedonian troops that were garrisoned there. Fearing a revolt among the other city-states, Alexander leapt into action, marching his massive army—consisting of 3,000 cavalry and 30,000 infantry—southward all the way to the tip of the Greek peninsula. Meanwhile, Alexander's general, Parmenion, had already made his way to Asia Minor.
alexander and his forces arrived in Thebes so quickly that the city didn't have a chance to pull together allies for its defense. Three days after his arrival, Alexander led the massacre of Thebes. It was Alexander's hope that the destruction of Thebes would serve as a warning to city-states contemplating revolt. His intimidation tactic proved effective; the other Greek city including Athens, chose to pledge their alliance to the Macedonian Empire or opted to remain neutral.
1.He was taught by Aristotle but had famous run-ins with other philosophers.
Alexander’s father, Philip II of Macedon, hired Aristotle, one of history’s greatest philosophers,, to educate the 13-year-old prince. Little is known about Alexander’s three-year tutelage but presumably by the end of it Aristotle’s wise but worldly approach had sunk in. According to legend, while still a prince in Greece, Alexander sought out the famed ascetic Diogenes the Cynic, who rejected social niceties and slept in a large clay jar. Alexander approached the thinker in a public plaza, asking Diogenes if there was anything he in his great riches could do for him.
2. In 15 years of conquest Alexander never lost a battle.
Alexander the Great’s military tactics and strategies are still studied in military academies today. From his first victory at age 18, Alexander gained a reputation of leading his men to battle with impressive speed, allowing smaller forces to reach and break the enemy lines before his foes were ready. After securing his kingdom in Greece, in 334 B.C. Alexander crossed into Asia (present-day Turkey) where he won a series of battles with the Persians under Darius III.
3.He named more than 70 countries after himself and one after his horse.
Alexander commemorated his conquests by founding dozens of cities (usually built up around previous military forts), which he invariably named Alexandria. The most famous of these, founded at the mouth of the Nile in 331 B.C., is today Egypt’s second-largest city. Other Alexandrias trace the path of his armies’ advances through present-day Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Pakistan. Near the site of the battle of the river Hydaspes—the costliest victory of his Indian campaign.
4. After defeating the Persians, Alexander started dressing like them.
six years of ever-deeper incursions into the Persian empire, in 330 A.D. Alexander conquered Persepolis, the longtime center of Persian culture. Realizing that the best way to maintain control of the Persians was to act like one, Alexander began to wear the striped tunic, girdle and diadem of Persian royal dress—to the dismay of cultural purists back in Macedonia.
5.Alexander’s body was preserved in a vat of honey.
Plutarch reports that Alexander’s body was initially treated in Babylon by Egyptian embalmers, but leading Victorian Egyptologist A. Wallis Budge speculated that Alexander’s remains were immersed in honey to stave off decay. A year or two after Alexander’s demise, his body was sent back to Macedonia only to be intercepted and sent to Egypt by Ptolemy I, one of his former generals. By controlling Alexander’s body, Ptolemy aimed to be viewed as the successor to his empire.
Caravan cities were not the only cities to thrive in Alexander’s new cosmopolitan world. The Egyptian city of Alexandria was a center of culture and commerce. Founded by Alexander himself, Alexandria became the capital of Egypt under the Ptolemaic dynasty. Located directly on the Mediterranean, Alexandria’s Great Harbor became an important hub for sea trade. Greek and Egyptian religion fused with the creation of the anthropomorphic god Serapis by Ptolemy I.
he single-handedly (alright, he had an army) destroyed the mighty Persian empire and that in itself had huge implications for the eastern mediterranean world and in fact, the entire middle-east.
He established a new standard for military conquest, tactics, training, etc... He proved that a highly skilled army that was extremely disciplined could effective conquor enemies much larger than itself repeatedly.
He spread Greek culture to a vast area and his 4 generals were able to sustain it for quite some time, especially in egypt. What most people don't know is that Cleopatra (the famous one) was greek and not egyptian, even though she was the last pharaoh of Egypt, as the entire line of Ptolemy kings was greek left over from Alexander's conquests. Greek civilizations impact on the modern western world is beyond measure and had Alexander not had the success he did, perhaps greek culture would have not been nearly as prominent in later Roman times.