For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest. After World War II, China established a system that imposed strict controls over everyday life. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.
2. Population and world ranking - 1,373,541,278 ; 1st
3. Economy/GDP world Ranking- Since the late 1970s, China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role. China in 2015 stood as the largest economy in the world, surpassing the US in 2014 for the first time in modern history. GDP per capita is $15,400.
4. Unemployment rate and world ranking- 4.2% ; 39
5. Main Industries- They are a world leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products (including footwear).
6. Government Type – Communist- In theory, under communism, all means of production are owned in common, rather than by individuals. In practice, a single authoritarian party controls both the political and economic systems.
7. Capitol- Beijing
8. Administrative divisions- 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)
9. Independence- 1 October 1949
10. Information about their constitution- Several previous constitutions; latest promulgated 4 December 1982. It was amended several times, last time was in 2004
11. Give a description of their legal system- China's civil law is influenced by Soviet and continental European civil law systems; legislature retains power to interpret statutes.
12. Suffrage (Voting Age)- 18 years old
13. Executive Branch Some of these may not apply. a. Head of State/Chief of state b. Cabinet ,Elections. How they work? How often? How is power transferred due to illness or death of leader?- A: President XI Jinping B: president and vice president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term.
14. Legislative Branch a. Unicameral or Bicameral? b. Explain how it is organized? b. Elections. How often?- Unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members indirectly elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and the People's Liberation Army; members serve 5-year terms). Only members of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its 8 allied parties, and CCP-approved independent candidates are elected.
15. Judicial Branch a. How is it organized? How are judges picked?- Chief Justice appointed by the People's National Congress (NPC); term limited to 2 consecutive 5-year terms.