Reducing Camera Shake:
To help reduce camera shake you can use a tripod, but making sure that your tripod is steady because using a cheaper tripod may be more flimsy and that can easily cause camera shake if something or someone moves close to the tripod whilst taking the picture. Another way to help reduce shake is by switching off image stabilization, although you can capture sharp images of still objects with a 500mm lens at speeds down to 1/60-second, a 300mm lens at speeds down to 1/30-second, and a 20mm lens at speeds down to 1/2-second.Image stabilization only allows you the ability to capture sharp images of static subjects at slower speeds. Moving objects will be equally blurry or streaky—and in some cases blurrier or shakier with the IS turned on.
The picture below show's six ways to help stop camera shake when you don't have a tripod around.
Built in camera flash:
The built in flash is often used as a filler for outside shoots to cover any shadows appearing in the photo, although the flash doesn't always look great as it gives off a very harsh light directly onto the subject there is ways to control the light. There are lots of on-camera flash diffusers available on the market, or you can make your own with a strip of translucent white plastic, from a milk container, for example — although this can have an impact on white balance. You can also try slow sync flash in which involves choosing a slower shutter speed and firing the flash while the shutter is open. This means you can both get a relatively sharp shot of your main subject as well as get some ambient light from the background and foreground.
Continuous & painting with light techniques :
Continuous light means a light that will stay on once you've switched it on, this includes studio lights in which you can turn the power up or down. It is something you do see everyday whether you're taking pictures or not. In this block we are focusing on light trails and this is a continuous light but the picture i taken at a slow shutter speed and a tripod must be used to stop the picture from being blurry. Painting with light is under a controlled situation, you can use any type of light as long as you an move it, for example the torch from your phone. To paint with light it's ideal to have a dark background so you can shoot in the studio or go out a night, the camera must be at a low shutter speed so it can catch the movement of the light.
Reflector, flags and diffusers:
You can buy reflectors in different shapes, sizes and colours often being white silver and gold. Silver increases the spectacular highlights and yields a high-contrast image. Gold produces a natural, golden fill and white produces an even, neutral-coloured bounce light that works beautifully as a fill light source.Placing opposite of your main light source creates a great bounce effect for fill light. You can also place a reflector in the subject's lap, or just in front of them at an angle, to soften all of the shadows under the eyes, chin, and to soften sharp features.
Flags can be anything as long a it's blocking the light from spilling onto things that you don't want lit. But since flags are only blocking part of a beam, there will be a shadow line to deal with. How sharp this shadow line will be depends on the size of the flag, the sharpness of the light (how hard or soft), and the distance from the flag to the shadow. However the flag can help prevent any lens flare.
A flash diffuser spreads the light from the flash of a camera. In effect, the light will not come from one concentrated source (like a spotlight), but rather will spread out, bounce from reflective ceilings and walls, thus getting rid of harsh light, and hard shadows leaving the image looking more natural. Diffusers come in all shapes and sizes and can be built into an external flash for your camera, but you can easily make one yourself. from simply placing a piece of semi-opaque sticky tape over your flash, to using pieces of plastic from takeout containers through to more involved contraptions involving tissue paper, cellophane and a variety of other types of opaque everyday items.