EARTH & SPACE by: Bavneet & noor


The third country to design and construct its own satellite was Canada. Not to mention, to have the first commercial geostationary communications satellite network, the first among the world. This happened with the launch of Anik A1, 1972. The Canadian Space Agency was created in 1989, March 1st. The agency provided; technology, proficiency and workforce to the world space attempt. This mostly was in participation along with NASA as well as ESA. Affecting long distance radio programs which are the studies of Alouette 1, it focuses on. Populating in space; the cost of the status of transportation, and supplies; water, food, etc. The cost of teaching, and education, the cost of civilization on a planet; materials, crops, construction, etc. A spacesuit costs around 2 million dollars, and 1 air shuttle costs around 1.1 billion dollars. Hazards include; loss of oxygen or fuel supplies, danger to death, etc

Hazards in Space Exploration -

Space junk:

There are about millions of pieces of junk located in space floating around, moving as fast as a shuttle. For individuals travelling into space, it would be dangerous if any kind of junk to correspond along with the rocket. The outcome of space junk hitting the rocket would be; dents; cracks; or holes, and the outcome for the passengers, obviously not good at all.


A challenge to travel in space, as well as humans would be the exposure to radiation. Here on Earth, the risk to be exposed from radiation is low because of the protection our planet seals alongside its natural radiation shield. What the shield does is protect us from 99.9% of the injurious cosmic rays the sun carries. Obviously, leaving Earth and entering space increases the hazard of exposure. Including the Sun and farther into space, are subatomic particles, the structure of space radiation. Not to mention, resulting in various diseases and cancer are the subatomic particles travelling extremely fast to tear our DNA molecules.

Benefits of space exploration--

1) It allows people to know more about the universe.

2) It paves the way to advanced technology.

3) It creates numerous jobs.

4) It can offer a solution to many problems.

It can offer a solution to many problems.

Aside from collecting information about the outer space, a lot space exploration programs are used to address some of the problems that affect modern society. For example,some programs, help scientists learn more about the earth’s atmosphere and know how to predict weather and natural disasters in a more accurate way. Others, meanwhile, focus on looking for planets that can support human life, which may be the solution to the earth’s growing population.


In the Night skies, celestial objects to notice would be; Asteroids; Auroras; Comets; Daylight Phenomena; Deep Sky; Double Stars; Eclipses, Meteors; The Moon; Occultations; Planets; Space Satellites; Sun; Variable Stars.

Variety of galaxies;

1) Spiral Galaxy; Distinguished by a demolished spiral disk along with a glaring center, known as the nucleus.

2) Barred Spiral Galaxy; From a straight bar of stars comes out the spiral arms. This is the different from the way it comes out from the centre.

3) Elliptical Galaxy; Differ in shape; entirely round to exceptionally extended ovals. Do not have any bright nucleus located at their centers.

4) Irregular Galaxy; The shape or structure is not visible

Star Clusters; Globular clusters and open clusters

Global clusters;Tight groups of hundreds of thousands of very old stars

Open clusters; Mostly have less than a few hundred stars, and are often very young

Six types of meteors

Meteor Swarm; With similar paths are these groups of meteoroids.

Aerolite; Consisting of types of salt minerals is a stony meteorite.

Micrometeor, Micrometeorite, Micrometeoroid;Without becoming so heated in the atmosphere, are meteorites and meteoroids small drifting down to Earth.

Pallasite;Composed of usually olivine and metallic iron are meteorites.

Siderite; Consisting generally of nickel and iron are meteorites.

Connection to NASA

The measurement and examination of aurora data is taken by NASA scientists and engineers by utilizing satellite technology. Also, studying the Northern Lights are Norwegian scientists involving the notion of examined statistics and measurement. Not to mention, with the utilization of ground-based instruments and sound rockets.


1) The Big Bang Theory;

14 billion years ago the universe was created by a big bang, known as the big bang theory, a prime explanation on how the universe had began. Neutrons, protons, and electrons are huge collections of fundamental particles cosmos incorporated, but as the universe became cooler, these either perished or merged together. This is most astronomers believe in. Astronomers presume that at first smaller than an atom was the universe within a bubble. We couldn’t imagine how hot and solid it was before it exploded. The start of a Big Bang included the start of; time; matter; space. It is said that the universe became bigger than a galaxy from a single atom within a fraction of a second, and it continued to develop at insane rate. The universe is still expanding. Matter collected as antiparticles is what energy changed into; matter and antimatter. It’s said matter and antimatter refused each other resulting into a explosion and destroyed one another. But of course, some matter outlasted. When the universe was a second old protons and neutrons began to form. Cool enough for protons and neutrons to come as one to create hydrogen and helium nuclei, was the dropped temperature of 1 billion degrees celsius

Connection to NASA

NASA disclosed that causing photons (also known as light) to separate the process sunlight does from water droplets in clouds within time, meeting up are free electrons and nuclei create neutral atoms. This authorizes light to shine through; about 380, 000 years after the big bang that created our universe.

2) The Steady State Theory

This theory is a general thesis. Astronomers state enduring the same throughout time, the universe does not have a beginning or end. The universe is expanding with this theory as well. Keeping the “steady state“ of the universe is the new matter created from energy while hydrogen shortens creating new stars and galaxies

Connection to NASA

Red-shiftis used to explain both the Steady State and Big Bang theories of the universe(red-shift in physics, redshift happens when light from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.). Cosmic Microwave Background radiation(“CMB” is the electromagnetic radiation left over from the time of the Big Bang theory) is evidence for the Big Bang theory only. This discovery has led to the Big Bang theory becoming the currently accepted model.


Including; the sun; planets; dwarf planets; moon; asteroids; comets; meteoroids; dust; gas; basically all that orbits around the solar system

Eight planets; Earth; Mars; Venus; Jupiter; Mercury; Saturn; Uranus; Neptune

Five dwarf planets; Ceres; Pluto; Haumea; Makemake; Eris

The greatest gravitational force comes from the sun. This happens in the solar system, controlling motions of objects in orbit

Known as the eclipse is the movement of the planet which goes around the sun in paths or orbits

Assembled when a cloud of gas and dust located in space was disrupted, the outbreak of a nearby star, was how the solar system was formed. (what scientists believe)

Outburst (explosion) caused waves in space, congesting a cloud of gas and dust

Formed around 4.6 billion years back was Earth.

Continuing from above, scientists believe it was a collision in a huge disc shaped cloud of material. This material also formed the sun.

Connection to NASA

Viewing beyond limitless areas to discover original stars, as well as galaxies. Not to mention, undiscovered worlds rotating around other stars are studied with NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope. Also Earth’s neighbourhood located in our solar system, meaning- planets; moons; comets; asteroids; etc is explored.


Thermonuclear fusion reactions are where the sun’s energy source comes from. This forms helium are hydrogen atoms combining with one another, because the sun’s gravity is so firm. The combined hydrogen atoms can release huge amounts of energy

The Sun is a star found in the middle of the Solar System. It makes up around 99.86% of the Solar System's mass. At around 1,392,000 kilometres wide, the Sun's diameter is about 110 times wider than Earth's. Around 74% of the Sun's mass is made up of hydrogen. It holds the planets orbiting in the solar system.As for ours, it is the main source of energy for living things. Without the sun, there will be no life on Earth. Galaxies were formed many billions of years ago when the particles of free floating hydrogen and helium began attracting other particles due to gravity.It resulted in the formation of clumps of matter, that were then held in place because of their and other's gravitational force.

Connection to NASA

Utilizing data based off NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO is a mesmerizing digital art instalment known as Solarium. This takes individuals visiting into the sun’s atmosphere. Solarium submits individuals to the dynamic, the sun’s strong essence obviously results in being difficult to monitor from Earth.



Because the stars are so far away, their positions and constellations are exactly the same as on Earth. However, star brightness would be all but absent at Mars.Due to the much lower atmospheric pressure, less than one percent that of the Earth.


Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos.At 20 and 10 km they are much smaller than the Earth's moon (3,500 km), but they partially make up for their small size by orbiting the planet very close to the surface, at 6,000 and 20,000 km.Whereas earth’s moon is not 384,400 km.


The planets would generally look different at Mars. Saturn and the outer planets would be about as bright as from Earth. Jupiter would be somewhat brighter,whereas Venus and Mercury would be dimmer and closer to the Sun than they appear from the Earth.

Connection to NASA

NASA joined the world in viewing a rare celestial event, which is a astronomical phenomenon.It involves one or more celestial bodies. Examples of celestial events include the cyclical phases of the Moon, solar and lunar eclipses, meteor showers, and comet flybys.One not seen by any person thats alive at this moment.The planet Venus appeared to cross in front of the Sun as seen from Earth. The last "Venus transit" occurred more than a century ago, in 1882.It was used to calculate the distance from the Earth to the Sun. Scientists with NASA's Kepler mission hope to discover Earth-like planets outside our solar system by searching for transits of other stars by planets that might be orbiting them.Kepler is a space observatory launched by NASA to discover Earth-size planets orbiting other stars.


The contributions of Canadians to space research, technology and exploration:

1) Greenhouses in space

2) Space vision system

3) Microgravity isolation mount

4) STEM antenna

5) Landing gear on the Apollo lunar module

Canada's contribution to the ISS (International Space Station) is the Mobile Servicing System (MSS)a sophisticated robotics suite that is located at the Station in space.Developed for the Canadian Space Agency by MDA of Brampton, Ontario, the MSS is comprised of:

1) Canadarm2, a 17-metre long robotic arm

2) Dextre, the Station's two-armed robotic "handyman" and

3) The Mobile Base is a moveable work platform and storage facility.


How matter and energy interact:

Kinetic energy is a type of energy which only moving objects have. An example of kinetic energy is a bowling ball rolling, and it knocks down the bowling pins in the way. Potential energy is energy an object possesses because of its position. The reason it is called potential energy is because it has the potential to make matter move and change once the energy is released. Potential energy also affects atoms and molecules, as strong forces hold these particles together, giving the particle's potential energy.Matter is everything around you. Atoms and molecules are all composed of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. If you are new to the idea of mass, it is the amount of stuff in an object.

Energy is the capacity to do work. Two forms of energy where matter and energy interact are kinetic energy and potential energy.

Positive and negative social impact of scientific developments and technology:


2) Perspective

3) Protecting and Understanding our World

4) Inspiration

5) The Economy

6) Answering Big and Important Questions

7) International Collaboration

8) Long-term Survival


1) The cost of space exploration and research is very expensive and there are many people who still live in poverty and go hungry.

2) Travel into space is very dangerous and risky. The space shuttle Challenger killed seven astronauts in the 1980s proving that it risks human life

3) Space junk is created by stuff we leave behind in space. Because there is no decomposition process in outer space, this stuff stays and floats around forever.

4) Stuff may fall out of space and may not totally burn up in the atmosphere and can cause damage when it lands on Earth and the radioactive parts can also contaminate our planet.

5) How can we be certain that the use of space travel will not be used in hostile intentions against other countries?

Positive and negative environmental impact of scientific developments and technology:


1) Space exploration allows us to find out more about the galaxy we are in as well as learn more about our planet.

2) Finding an inhabitant planet other than earth can help reduce and possibly solve the problem of global warming. It can also help overpopulation concerns.

3) While we are exploring space, we have learned so many things we wouldn’t know otherwise. we have learned of starts, planets other galaxies, and the new coming idea of what could be past our galaxy are endless.

4) The design of new technology evolves as space exploration expands and evolves, all of which generates jobs, opportunities and the overall good of the world.

5) Weather patterns can be studied when we are in space, allowing for a better understanding of one of nature’s strongest forces.


1)Space exploration takes up a lot of valuable and costly resources that could be better used in a needy world.

2) Space exploration is very costly to do. With budget cuts and the government in deep debt, it is hard to think how much more exploration we can actually accomplish without the financial means to do so.

3) Traveling into space is dangerous and those who go into space risk their health when doing so. The conditions outside the earth’s atmosphere can cause any medical conditions and make health concerns worsen.

4) It is quite possible that there are diseases in the other atmospheres that could be a detriment to the country if it were to ever come into the earth’s atmosphere. The chances are unlikely, but there is a lot more of space to learn about.

5) Items that came into the earth’s atmosphere that don’t break up upon entry and disintegrate can cause massive damage when they land on the earth, such as a meteor.

Positive and negative economical impact of scientific developments and technology:


1) Increases the trade with other countries

2) Faster and cheaper air transportation

3 )Safer and more efficient fuels

4) Better safety measures for all engines

5) Improved Medical Equipment


1) The cost of space exploration and research is very expensive and there are many people who still live in poverty and the government needs it.

2) Space exploration can start conflicts between two countries.

3) A lot of money is put in, even tho more than half the money put into to research results in a dead end.

Created By
Bavneet & Noor Sandhu

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