Chapter 11 ContRol of Gene ExpressioN

Cell Cycle

  • The cell cycle is a series of events from the time a cell forms until its cytoplasm


  • This stage is the internal between when miotic divion and when a cell grows, and it spends most of its life in this stage
  • This is when the cell replicates its DNA and doubles the number of cytoplasmic components
  • There are 3 stages G1, S, and G2


  • This is the first stage of mitosis, and the chromosomes are condensed
  • The nuclear envelope breaks up
  • Spindles made of microtubules form at each end of the cell


  • The chromosomes align in the middle of the cell
  • They are pushed and pulled by the microtubules to align in between the spindles


  • The microtubules the sister and the parent chromosomes to opposite sides
  • This makes separate chromosomes


  • This is when the two chromosomes reach either end of the cell
  • The two bunches are exactly the same and have the same DNA
  • Then, a nuclear envelope starts to form around each cluster
  • This is the end of mitosis


  • These are noncoding DNA sequences at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes
  • They are junk sequences, but are essential to living a long life
  • They provide a buffer between the essential DNA, because each time a cell divides, a chromosomes lose about 100 nucleotides


  • Cancer is when neoplasms become malignant and becomes harmful, or potentially harmful to the body.
  • The cancer cells reproduce at a much faster rate, which can sometimes become so big that it is easily noticeable, which is called a tumor
  • Cancer originally starts as a mutation in the cell

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