Southern Africa pages 377-396

Landforms and Bodies of Water

  • Angola and South Africa are each nearly the size of Western Europe and are the continent's seventh- and ninth-largest countries.
  • Along with Namibia, Mozambique, Zambia, and Botswana, Angola and South Africa rank in the top 25 percent of the world's countries in land area.
  • The country of Madagascar occupies the world's fourth largest island.

Landforms

  • A series of plateaus that range in elevation from 3,000 feet to 6,000 feet cover most of the region.
  • Long chains of sand dunes rise as much as 200 feet high.
  • Mountain peaks rise to more than 11,000 feet.

Bodies of Water

  • The Zambezi.
  • The Limpopo.
  • The Orange.
“Which type of landform is common in Southern Africa?”

Mountains that are ranging over 11,000 feet.

Climate-Tropical Zone

  • Southern Africa has a very wide variety of climates ranging from humid, arid, to hot to cold.
  • Each area gets as much as 70 inches of rain a year.

Temperate Zones

  • Summer days are warm from 70 degrees to 90 degrees depending on elevation.
  • Winters are cool, with frosts and sometimes freezing temperatures.
Hot to Cold

Desert Regions

  • Namib gets very little rain some years they get none.
  • The fog and dew give the plants a little moisture though.
“Why are temperatures in Southern Africa’s tropical countries generally not hot?”

Because in the tropical parts their is a lot of rain and not a lot of dry so not as much sun.

Natural Resources

“What natural resources are found in Southern Africa, and why are they important?”

Gold, chromium, platinum, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem, diamonds, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas, vermiculite, limestone, asbestos, fluorspar, lead, zinc, rutile, kaolin, zirconium, silver, phosphate, gypsum, mica. Without all of these minerals we would not have a lot of the things we have today and probably would not be alive.

South Africa's Resources

  • The Republic of South Africa has the largest mineral reserve.
  • The reserve has attracted workers and investors.

Energy Resources

  • The regions rivers are another resource that provide power.
  • Malawi's rivers and falls generate power.

Minerals and Other Resources

  • In the 1990's rebels captured Angola's mines and sold all of their diamonds.
  • Blood diamonds are diamonds that are stolen and sold to rebels.

Wildlife

  • Poaching is very common around Southern Africa and usually it happens to elephants for their tusks.
  • Poaching is illegal killing game and is a very big problem.
“How does deforestation affect the energy supply in the regions''

It effects the production of energy.

History of Southern Africa - Rise of Kingdoms

  • Southern Africa's indigenous people have inhibited the region for thousands of years.

Great Zimbabwe

  • Around the year A.D. 900 the Shona people built a wealthy and powerful kingdom.
  • Some structures were more than 30 feet high.

The Mutapa Empire

  • The Portugese arrived and took over the Coastal Trade in the 1500s.
  • Rozwi conquered the Mutapa's territory and ruled it until late 1800s.

Other Kingdoms

  • A series of kingdoms rose and fell on the island of Madagascar from the 1600s to 1800s.
  • French troops invaded the kingdom in 1895 and made it a French possession.

European Colonies

  • Around 1500, Portugal and other European countries began establishing settlements along the coast.

Clashes in South Africa

  • Most of the Africans fled north into the desert.

The union of South Africa

  • In the 1860s, the Boers discovered diamonds in their territory.

Colonialism in other Areas

  • The British and the Boers fought for South Africa.
“Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800s?”

Independence and Equal Right

  • French rule in Madagascar ended in 1960 and was the first to be independent.

The end of Portuguese Rule

  • The thousands of troops Portugal sent to crush these revolts failed to do so.

The birth of Zimbabwe

  • Rhodesia's African population demanded the right to vote.

Equal Rights in South Africa

  • By the 1970s, apartheid-related events in South Africa had gained world attention.
  • The ANC easily won the elections.

Lesson 3

The People of the Region

  • The population of South Africa is overwhelming black African.

Population Patterns

  • Southern Africa's population varies widely.
  • Fewer than 2 million people live in the small countries.
  • South Africa's population is about 49 million.

Ethnic and Culture Groups

  • Botswana population is 4 million.
  • Tsonga has 4.5 million.
  • Mbundu has about 2.5 million.

Religion and Languages

  • Zimbabwe and Swaziland have a blend of Christianity.
  • Angola however, continues to hold traditional indigenous religious beliefs.
  • Most of Mozambiques Muslims are Islamic.
“What is the main religion practiced in Southern Africa?”

Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Judism

Life in Southern Africa

  • As in other regions of Africa, life differs from city to countryside.

Urban Life

  • Angola's capital is very large it has 4.5 million people.

Urban Growth and Change

  • The region's cities have a mix of many ethnic groups.
  • It also has a mix of cultures.
  • Most live in townships at the cities edge.

Family and Traditional Life

  • Rural villages are small consisting of only 20 to 30 houses.
  • People in rural areas tend to farm for food and survival.
“Where in their countries do most Southern Africans live?”

Eastern part of Country.

Southern Africa Today

  • The region faces political, social, and economic challenges.

Health Issues

  • Life expectancy is very low in South Africa.

Disease

  • Malaria is one out of the three most common disease.
  • Malnutrition is two out of three.
  • HIV/AIDS is the third most common.

Progress and Growth

  • Angola and Mozambique continue to rebuild.
  • Tourism at national parks have even grown.

Help From Other Countries

  • The U.S. has provided billions of dollars for South Africa.
  • They are trying to fight the HIV/AIDS virus.
“Why is life expectancy in Southern Africa so low?”

Because of HIV/AIDS and no food and malaria.

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