Spain was often invadido because it was a great place to reparar, comercio, and repostar.
Spain was first invaded by the celtas. The only problem was that the Iberos already reclamado the land. The Celtas took the western part of Spain and the Iberos took the eastern part. The Celtas and Iberos joined together and were called the Celtiberos.
The Spanish Inquisition
In 1492 the last Moorish king was defeated. Therefore all the Muslims remaining in Spain were forzado to leave or convert to Christianity.
In 1502, it was decided that all Jews need to salir Spain or convert to Christianity. This law was in place because of the success from the Muslims.
Converting the Muslims and Jews wasn't pretty. They torturado people until they confessed or converted or they poner them on trial and later executed them!
Carlos I and V
Carlos I was the son of Juana and Felipe. Under his rule, the Spanish Empire grew rapidly. Gold, silver, corn, potatoes, and fruits flooded into Spain from Americans.
Carlos V usado the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to subsidize the many religious wars he was fighting across Europe.
Spain under Carlos V became one of the strongest defenders of Catholicism, as it luchado to stop the spread of the Protestant reformation across Europe.
There was continued wars against Protestants. In 1554, he married Mary Tudor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England, however, there was no son and the protestant, Elizabeth I came to power in England.
Annexed Portugal, Dutch declared independence from Spain, this starts war involving England. In 1588 Spain’s Invincible Armada was defeated by England.
Felipe II is succeeded by his son, who's named Felipe III (1598-1621). Felipe III dies and his son takes the throne. His son Felipe IV reigns from 1621-1665.
Felipe IV reina over one of the richest cultural periods in Spanish history (the Siglo de Oro) named the century of gold. Felipe IV’s son, Carlos II is known as “El Hechizado” (“the Bewitched”). He died in 1700, leaving no heir to ascend to the throne of Spain.
War of Spanish Successor pitted royal families and their nations against each other to see who would regla Spain. The War ends in 1713, with Spain perdiendo Gibraltar to the English.
Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, becomes King of Spain. The Bourbon family remains the royal family of Spain today.
The country is divided on having a woman ruler. Supporters of Fernando’s brother, Carlos face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “Guerras Carlistas.” Isabel reigns until 1868.
Isabel rules through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opposing her authority. The Glorious Revolution removes Isabel II from power in 1868.
A short lived experiment places King Amadeo of Saboya, an Italian, on the throne from 1870-1873. The first Spanish Republic is proclaimed in 1873. It ends in 1874.
The Bourbons return to the throne with the reign of Alfonso XII from 1875- 1885, followed by his son Alfonso XIII from 1902- 1931. Alfonso XIII was born in 1885 (shortly after his father’s death). His mother oversaw the government as his regent in the interim.
In typical Bourbon fashion, Spain quickly begins a downslide, marked by the loss of it last remaining colonies in 1898 and embarrassing military defeats in Morocco. Unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country. Alfonso XIII allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931.
The dictatorship is unable to solve the problems of the country. In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try
2nd Republic of Spain
The Second Republic of Spain is established in 1931, ushering in an era of hope and optimism. They set up a new, progressive constitution, which gives women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates the Church from the State, and creates public schools
The new government creates an even deeper political and social divide. The military, the Church and the upper classes think there are too many changes going on. Socialists and Communist factions think there are not enough changes and want more change, faster.
On March 11, 2004, Islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 and injuring over 2000.
2 days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain. His first action, as promised, was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq. He won re-election in 2008.
There is a royal family now in Spain, but all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the Government.