Mainstreaming CCA into water resources Day 3: Approaches for integrating CCA into water resources

DAY 3 - Setting the scene: Water is the key medium through which changes in human and physical systems affect atmospheric temperature rises. Climate change will alter the hydrological cycle in many ways. The trigger is the warming of the atmosphere and oceans, which will change major weather systems. This will alter temporal and spatial patterns of rainfall with consequences for runoff, surface and groundwater storage, river flow regimes and likelihood of extremes – droughts and floods – in different parts of the world. These changes will in turn affect major human livelihood systems, particularly those dependent on direct access to natural assets, e.g. Rain-fed agriculture, human settlement patterns and movement, water supplies, sanitation and irrigation.

Climate change will result in an increase in the cost of water services and the cost of reliability in service delivery. Mainstreaming involves improving or changing the policy and planning landscape so that climate resilient development for water security occurs systematically, rather than requiring special efforts. There are three main elements of adaptive planning: to prepare for a wide range of plausible future scenarios; to respond to change with robust and flexible actions; and to monitor critical changes so that plans can be reassessed accordingly.

CCA in water resource management - experience of GWP

Armand Houanye, GIZ, presented on Mainstreaming water security and climate resilience into development planning and decision making process.

Armand outlined mainstreaming objectives and concepts of water security. He compared standard development planning with climate resilient development planning, which will be unaffected by climate change and will deliver benefits under the full range of potential future climate change scenarios. He outlined the key institutional requirements for effective mainstreaming. He presented the Water Climate Development Programme in Africa, WACDEP – A Programme of AU through African Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW) implemented by GWP and partners.

Video: WACDEP Africa Experience in Ghana, outlining the issues and why need to mainstream CCA into water resources management and development.

Country-based case studies on mainstreaming CCA into water resource management

Yun Ra Choi, KPC, presented on the Korean experience of initiating the Korean NAP, starting with the Climate Change Adaptation Scheme, covering 243 cities, 49 public organisations, and 8 municipal government units. The first Korean National Climate Change Adaptation Master Plan - or NAP - (2011-2015) was established as Korea’s first legally prescribed adaptation policy in October 2010 through joint efforts by 13 associated government ministries under the supervision of the Ministry of Environment. A detailed implementation plan will be formulated for each government ministry based on this plan and wide-area local governments will formulate their own detailed implementation plans that account for regional characteristics. The plan is formulated on a five-year rolling plan format in order to ensure flexible response to variations in climate change phenomena and to reflect advancements in climate change monitoring and prediction technologies. The plan contains 87 tasks across the 10 sectors of health, disasters, agriculture, forestry, marine and fishing industries, water management, ecosystems, climate change monitoring and prediction, adaptation industries and energy, education and promotion, and international cooperation. It involves monitoring the climate environment on a yearly basis, carrying out implementation evaluations, and reflecting the results in the plan for the following year.

'The Korean National Climate Change Adaptation Master Plan process is iterative: it involves monitoring the climate environment on a yearly basis, carrying out implementation evaluations, and reflecting the results in the plan for the following year.' Yun Ra Choi, KPC

Phuntsho Wangdi, National Environment Commission, Bhutan, presented on Mainstreaming Integrated Water Resource Management in Bhutan, covering the country context, climate change projections, methodology and tools for adaptation, key outcomes and lessons learned. The Bhutan Water Policy-2008 and the Bhutan Water Act-2011 commenced the process of mainstreaming the integrated water resources management (IWRM) framework in Bhutan. The National Integrated Water Resource Management Plan (NIWRMP) methodology incorporates climate change assessment, hydrological assessment, and physical, institutional and socio-economic realities. An Inter-agency Coordination Framework on Water Security is also established, to cover water security in the following five dimensions: household, economic, environment, disaster resilience and urban.

'Through this process, Bhutan has learned the value of involving all stakeholders for any planning and implementation, also the benefit of strong political will and support, and an enabling environment. It is crucial to understand Local dynamics and have access to relevent data and information.' Phuntsho Wangdi, National Environment Commission, Bhutan

Daw Khon Ra, Director, Hydrology Branch, Irrigation & Water Utilisation Management Department, Myanmar, presented a case study on integrated water resource management - focusing on the Mone Chaung Multipurpose Dam. He presented a range of climate projections and challenges for water resource management. The four main rivers of Myanmar are the Ayeyarwaddy, Chindwin, Sittaung and Thanlwin. The National Water policy states that planning and management of water resources structures,should incorporate coping strategies for climate change. The Agriculture Policy also indicates a need to acquire needed technology – aiming at mitigating losses and damages caused by natural disasters. It calls for resilient agriculture, livestock and fishery activities, in addition to conservation of natural ecological systems, to mitigate land degradation, soil and biodiversity losses, and to benefit soil fertility. Despite these policies, there are many constraints. The current observation system is manual, and data is insufficient. Budget allocation is very limited for hydrological investigation work.

'There is a requirement to upgrade current meteorological and hydrological observation systems, install advanced hydro-meteorological monitoring and flood warning systems, and a establish data bank to upgrade and access data information.' Daw Khon Ra, Director, Hydrology Branch, Irrigation & Water Utilisation Management Department, Myanmar

Duangjai Srithawatchai, Department of Water Resources, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Thailand, presented a country case study on CCA in water resource management for Thailand. Thailand has launched a 20 year Water Resources Management Strategic Plan (2017-2036), linked to the National Economic and Social Development Plan (NESDP), which incorporates CCA. This is backed by an overall vision of Sufficiency Economy Philosophy (SEP) towards the SDGs. The objective is to solve water resource problems which cause severe socio-economic impacts, to integrate water management, and to balance economic development and sustainable environment issues. The strategy covers domestic water use, water security for agriculture and industry, flood mangement, water quality, forest rehabilitation and erosion prevention. She reviewed Thailand's considerable flood disaster risks. Finally, she outlined lessons learned in the mainstreaming of climate resilience into development planning - including the necessity for downscaling and the requirement for specific climate and water-related data.

'Severe flooding has struck recently in Thailand affecting almost every province - notably in 2005, 2006, 2010 and 2011 - which was the most severe flood, affecting the Chao Phraya River Basin. This disaster caused loss of life, and catastrophic damage to livihoods and property. The economy was severely affected. In total, 1.6 million hectares of central Thailand were inundated. The economic losses totalled 1.44 billion baht.'

Open discussion - experiences of mainstreaming

Integrated water resource management

Armand Houanye, GIZ presented on integrated water resource management (IWRM) - which in essence means that all the different uses of water resources are considered together. Water allocations and management decisions need to consider the effects of each use on the others. This needs to happen both in the national and international context, since globally, 263 river basins are shared by two or more nations. In the 1990s, 90% of natural disasters were water related.The global population will increase from 6 billion to 9 billion over the next 50 years, impacting water requirements. To mitigate these challenges, IWRM facilitates participatory decision making, and supports disaster preparedness and water security. IWRM can be characterised as a process relevant for incorporating CCA considerations, a tool for self assessment and program evaluation, a tool for policy, planning, and management and a mechanism for evaluating competing demands, resource allocation, and tradeoffs. IWRM offers the opportunity to build resilience to current climate variability while building capacity to adapt to future climate. IWRM allows balancing of equity, environmental and economic priorities.

“IWRM is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems”

Mozaharul Alam, UN Environment, presented on Ecosystem Based Adaptation (EbA), covering ecosystems and ecosystem services, the inter-linkage of climate change, ecosystem and human well-being, the linkages between EbA and National Adaptation Plan process, the approaches and tools for supporting EbA planning, and the benefits of EbA. Ecosystem services are defined as the benefits people obtain from ecosystems, including Goods or products produced by ecosystems, and Cultural Intangible benefits obtained from ecosystems. He considered how ecosystems affect human well-being, and how ecosystems affect climate (and vice versa). Healthy ecosystems can play in increasing resilience and helping people to adapt to climate change through the delivery of the range of services that play a significant role in maintaining human well-being. Ecosystem-based adaptation (EBA) is an emerging approach that helps people and the environment to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change. Babu outlined links between NAP elements and EbA components

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