Ezra and Nehemiah are our most important source of evidence for the history of the early postexillic period (the Babylonian captivity), Ezra was a priest, whilst Nehemiah was the governor. this Ezra went up from Babylonia. He was a scribe skilled in the law of Moses.
The whole assembly returned to Judah was forty-two thousand three hundred sixty, besides their male and female servants, of whom there were seven thousand three hundred thirty seven,
The exiles wanted the temple to be rebuilt, but faced much resistance, by the people of Judah and tribe of Benjamin. "The Decree of Darius" Then King Darius made a decree, and they searched the archives where the documents were stored in Babylon. A record, In the first year of his reign, "King Cyrus issued a decree: Concerning the house of God at Jerusalem, let the house be rebuilt".
"The people of Israel, the priests and the Levites, and the rest of the returned exiles, celebrated the dedication of this house of God with joy" On the fourteenth day of the month the returned exiles kept the passover.