Biotechnology By: Anna Caroline McGuinn

Cloning is the process in which are generating a genetically identical copy of a cell or organism. Cloning is always happening around us in nature. When a cell replicates itself asexually, it replicates with no genetic alteration. Cells without a nucleus, like bacteria, replicate they create identical replications using Binary Fission. Cells with a nucleus, like humans, replicate using mitosis. Cloning so far has ben used to replicate animals and plant. As cloning involves, we will be able to replicate humans themselves. Like you would expect, there would be ethical issues. Mainly that once cloning fully evolves, everyone will be the same.

The biggest positive is organ replacement. We can diminish he waiting list for people to replace their failing organs Many people, however, believe that community diversity will no longer be in full effect. Many scientists believe that this will cause mankind lack in the ability to adapt. There are many more positives and negatives, but these are just a few. Technology for cloning is called SCNT or Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer. This process involves taking out the egg cell's single set of chromosones and replacing it with the nucleus of the somatic cell, containing two complete sets of chromosomes. Cloning will lead to new advances.

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), is taking organism cells and processing them in a labatory to give them specific traits that you want them to have. This has been in the works for a few years, with people who cannot have children physically can create their own child with the abilities to choose their unborn child's traits. Many ethical issues come up with GMO. The main concern is since this test has been in the works for such a short time, we do not know the long term effects. Also, since we have started to test it with plants like corn, we do not the food allergies that come an issue in the future.

A positive of GMO is the possible advances in created healthier foods with no pesticides needed in the process in growing. When it comes to animals, it's the same thing. Healthier meat from cows for consuming. A big negative is the creating of a new protein called Glidain, which will make people's appetite increase, causing them to eat 440 more calories a day. Knowing about GMO will have us advance in the agricultural as well as the medical field.

Stem Cell: Adult vs Embryonic is the process when cells is extracting the cells from an adult with their permission versus extrating the cells from an aborted child with no permission. This has been in the works since 1981 to try to help cure diseases like Leukemia. This epidemic has been a huge ethical controversy since it began. Because not only has a life been lost, but you are now taking cells without permission. However, when it comes to Adult Stem Cell, you have premission to extract from the person themselves. A positive is scientific breakthrough with this procedure. A negative is the ethical issue of taking an unborn life and just using, which can rub people the wrong way. Also, you do not know the outcome until it happens. Knowing the difference is beneficial in knowing the process and the outcomes that follow.

DNA fingerprinting (also known as DNA computing), is taking the the biological molecules instead of silicon chips. This process as started very early on in the 1950's. An ethical issue that is brought up is the sharing the information of someone else's DNA, which could be stolen.

The positive of DNA fingerprinting is more beneficial for the law enforcement to find criminals, to be able to get an accurate description. A negative is stolen identity. Just like stealing credit card information, an identity can be stolen with just looking at the information. Knowing how this can be applied in the future like airports, banks, etc.

Personal ancestry is taking your DNA, usually from a mouth swab and then being able to receive about your heritage, like what your natives are. There are other options, like blood tests. This hasn't been around for too long. However, it has been very benefical to people interested in finding out more about their family's past. The ethical issue of all of this is getting false information. Think about it, you sent a cotton swab with silivia on it to a facility that you have no clue about an you are oblivious to the possible outcomes. Chances are, the information could be totally false. A positive of this scientific test is knowing about the past. A negative is stolen information and false information. Knowing about this test has made a breakthrough in science and the knowing of DNA.

Gel Electrophoresis is the method and analysis macromolecules. Nuclear Acid are applied by an electric field to move negative charges. This hasn't been around to often but it is pretty interesting. The ethical issue surrounding Gel Electrophoresis is like with any DNA, invasion of privacy. Also something that can occur is Abnormal Running Duration.

A negative effect is we do not know what Gel Electrophoresis can and cannot do. We know very little about this DNA process. A positive is the detecting of different sizes between the DNA and RNA by being organized by size. Knowing the technology is beneficial to being able to evolve from that starting point.

Plasmid is a genetic structure that can replicate independently of the chromosomes and is smaller, circular DNA. Recombinant DNA is DNA formed artificially constituents from the different organisms. Transgenic Organism is genes of one species that can be modified and can go from one gene to another. All three have been in the works for awhile. A controversial thing with this, especially with plasmid, is the payment that is involved with it. A positive is with any replication is being able to use it for more scientific discoveries. A negative is the ethical issue of payment, as listed above. The technology is involved in extracting, or taking away the DNA needed. This will help us observe how we can advance more than we already have.

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Anna McGuinn
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Created with images by krzys16 - "autumn seasons of the year green" • EverJean - "Costa Rica 2011. Ecole Chocolat" • artursfoto - "modified tomato genetically" • Dag Endresen - "Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)" • CodonAUG - "Neural stem cells" • 422737 - "fingerprint traces pattern" • kewl - "Fingerprint" • Allan Henderson - "At Chatsworth" • ballance5702 - "DNA Gel Electrophoresis after amplification by PCR" • CodonAUG - "Immunostained coronal section of an embryonic mouse brain"

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