Reconstruction Begins By Devin DICKEY and cade KLUBNIK

Reconstruction Begins

Reconstruction has been in full force ever since the Civil War. Finally, we can attempt to make the South realize freedmen deserve the same rights as us! It has been a long process to get to the point where we can develop a reconstruction plan for the South, after it has been left in ruins post Civil War.

Reconstruction in Texas

Two Presidential Plans

President Lincoln was planning on reconstructing the South as quickly as possible, and set an extremely low bar for the traders of the North. Lincoln offered a pardon to all Southerners who would promise their loyalty to the United States, once 10 percent of a state did this they would return to the Union. After Lincoln's tragic assassination, Andrew Johnson, our former Vice President, has been in charge of Reconstruction of the South. Johnson set much higher expectations for the South, with more rules they needed to follow to join our country. First, he set up a provisional government and has required the Southerners to free all slaves, pay for reconstruction on its owner , and admit succession is wrong.

Andrew Johnson

Slavery Ends In Texas!

Gordon Granger just announced to Galveston, Texas they must free all slaves, he has enforced the Emancipation Proclamation. He has really started the end of slavery in Texas, before this, even though Lincoln declared the Emancipation Proclamation about two years ago, Southerners continued to have slaves. Now a legal holiday, Juneteenth, is a time of great celebrations. Freedmen have been running down the road to see what freedom feels like, they have searched for lost family members, and have attempted to get jobs from their past owners. This is a day where all African Americans can celebrate freedom and equality.

Slavery is abolished

New Texas Governor Appointed

President Johnson attempted to appoint Unionists, Southerners who had opposed secession, to lead Texas' provisional government. He appointed Andrew Hamilton, a former state representative who represented Texas while the secession crisis occurred. The Constitutional Convention of 1866 consisted of almost all the delegates supporting slavery and the Confederacy. The Convention was extremely bias since the majority of the vote believed African Americans were not equal.

Andrew Hamilton

A New Constitution!

The Constitution of 1866 is an amended version of the constitution before the Civil War. It nullifies secession and abolishes slavery, freedmen are able to own land and enter into contracts, but that was about how far they went for equal rights to African Americans. They can not vote, hold public office, serve on juries, or testify against a white. The ex-Confederates refuse to acknowledge the Thirteenth Amendment and the Fourteenth, which outlaw slavery and protect the rights of formerly enslaved people. The delegates also have included Black Codes, which restrict the rights of freedmen.

Black Codes

Congress Takes Control!

The Northern Congress has been growing with anger as the Southerner Congress has been made up of all ex-Confederates and racsists, and it seems as if Johnson hasn't changed anything in the South. Many Northerners refuse to seat Southerners in congress. The Radical Republicans are beginning to take control of the South. The Radical Republicans want tougher requirements for the South to rejoin the Union, want to protect the rights of freedmen, and want to reshape Southern society. The Radical Republicans gained 2/3 of the vote, and launched their own Reconstruction plan.

Radical Republicans

Radical Reconstruction Begins!

The Congressional Plan is much harsher than Johnson's plan, they just split the South into five districts, Texas and Louisiana make up the fifth district. The plan declares all past Southern Governments are now illegal, and all the new districts are lead by an army general. Congress has also required Southerners to take the Ironclad Oath, the oath pledges the person had not voluntarily joined the Confederate army or aided the Confederacy.

South in 5 districts

Freedmen Get The Vote!

The army and Freedmen's Bureau have registered thousands of freedmen to vote. He also just removed thousands of white-confederates, those who refused to take the Ironclad Oath, from the voting rolls. The General with control over Texas, General Charles Griffen, has also removed hundreds of state officials who were viewed as opponents of reconstruction, and has replaced them with republicans. With all of this Republican success, a new cult has started. The Ku Kux Klan, an anti equality terriorist group, that has caused fear for all Unionists. The Ku Klux Klan is a violent group of Confederate extremists, that has recently burned down significant buildings, and murdered supporters of the Union. They target Carpetbaggers, people that come from the North with little to nothing just to help Reconstruction in the South, and Scalawags who were Southerners that supported Reconstruction.


Reconstruction Ends!

It is March 12, 1870 and Reconstruction in the South has officially ceased. Many whites in Texas are upset because they believe it is not truly the end of Reconstruction while the Radical Republicans remain in office. Most freedmen live in rural areas and continue to to work for landowners or become landowners themselves. African Americans set up hundreds of small communities along riverbanks and in the wilderness. In 1872, Democrats regain control of the seats in the state legislature. This gives the Confederates control again, and give them the opportunity to continue on the racsism that occurred in the South. Even now, more than a hundred years later, there is still rascism in our world, and it should have been stopped so long ago.

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