新闻来源：The Guardian《卫报》；作者：Verna Yu in Hong Kong；发布时间：1 Aug 2020 / 2020年8月1日
'Like in the Cultural Revolution': Hong Kong's educators fear being purged
Teachers and professors face crackdown as authorities fight for the minds of an antagonistic young generation
Hong Kong school students protest against a teacher’s dismissal over ‘her political beliefs’ in June. Teacher fear the new security law will increase scrutiny on them. Photograph: Tyrone Siu/Reuters 香港的在校学生6月就一名教师因“政治信仰”被辞退而抗议。 老师担心新国安法会增加对他们的审查。 摄影：Tyrone Siu /路透社
For thousands of university professors and teachers in Hong Kong, the coming weeks will be a nervous time as they prepare for a new academic year.
In just a month’s time, universities, schools and even kindergartens across the city will be placed under unprecedented scrutiny as they resume classes for the first time after the national security law passed in July, amid calls for the “bad apples” among teachers to be purged.
Teachers and schools have come under scathing attack from government officials and the pro-establishment camp since the anti-government protest movement roiled Hong Kong a year ago. In language reminiscent of China’s Cultural Revolution between 1966 and 1976, professors and teachers have been widely blamed for “poisoning” young minds with an allegedly heretical and radical agenda, and for producing a young generation antagonistic towards the authorities.
Just in the past week, two academics active in politics have been dismissed. This took place the same week as the arrests of four student activists on national security charges and the disqualification of 12 pro-democracy candidates for the legislative election.
仅在过去一周，就有两名活跃于政界的学者被开除。 而在同一周，还有四名学生活动家因国家安全罪被捕，以及 12名民主候选人被取消了立法会选举资格。
Benny Tai, a law professor and one of the founders of the 2014 “umbrella” occupy movement much vilified in the Chinese state press, was fired by the University of Hong Kong on Tuesday. Tai was jailed last year on public nuisance charges for leading the civil disobedience movement.
法学教授戴耀廷（Benny Tai）是被中共国官方媒体大肆诋毁的2014年“雨伞占中运动”的创始人之一，他在周二被香港大学解雇。 去年，戴耀廷（Benny Tai）还因领导公民抗议运动而被控妨害公共秩序罪入狱。
Benny Tai, an umbrella movement leader who was arrested on Tuesday. Photograph: Ann Wang/Reuters 雨伞占中运动领导人戴耀廷在周二被捕。 照片：王安/路透社
China’s liaison office hailed his sacking as “a deed of justice” and accused him of “inciting” students. The China-owned Wen Wei Po said it was a long-overdue “riddance of a cancer” from the university.
Tai said his dismissal “marks the end of academic freedom in Hong Kong” and he was “heartbroken to witness the demise of my beloved university”.
Shiu Ka-chun, a pro-democracy lawmaker and lecturer in social work who has taught at the Hong Kong Baptist University for 11 years, said he was “shocked” by his employer’s refusal to renew his contract.
曾在香港浸会大学(Hong Kong Baptist University)任教11年的民主派立法会议员、社会工作讲师邵家臻(Shiu Ka-chun)说，他对雇主拒绝与他续签合同感到“震惊”。
Shiu, also jailed last year for “inciting public nuisance” in the occupy protests, was removed from teaching duty in January while the university launched disciplinary proceedings linked to his conviction.
“They are settling accounts with people who have participated in the occupy movement, and are prosecuting us through law and our career,” he said. The Baptist University declined to comment on his case.
The Hong Kong security chief, John Lee, vowed to get rid of the “bad apples” in the education sector responsible for poisoning Hong Kong’s youths in an interview published in China-owned Ta Kung Pao newspaper on Thursday.
Lee said the authorities would “seriously punish the public enemies” and aim to eradicate “the virus that was endangering national security” within two years. The national security law mandates the government step up supervision of schools and academic institutions.
Lee, a member of the national security committee, said his first priority would be to “deal with the schools”, citing statistics that around 40% of those arrested in the anti-government protests were students and over 100 were teachers.
Hong Kong will enter an anti-intellectual era where no independent thinking would be allowed
Prof Chan Kin-man
Over the past few months, the Education Bureau has indeed taken a series of measures to bolster its supervision of schools, teachers and students.
In June, the education secretary told schools to discipline students or teachers who protest against Beijing’s imposition of the national security law. Around the same time, the bureau said new teachers need to complete a mandatory training programme on professional conduct and national development.
The bureau has banned students from shouting political slogans and singing protest songs at school. The bureau’s head also told schools that they could call the police if students showed disrespect toward the national anthem. A music teacher who allowed her students to sing a protest song at their music exam also had her contract terminated.
该局已禁止学生高喊政治口号以及在学校唱抗议歌曲。 该局负责人还告诉学校，如果学生对国歌表现出不尊重，学校可以报警。 一位允许她的学生在音乐考试中演唱抗议歌曲的音乐老师也因此被终止合同。
Soon after public libraries pulled several books by pro-democracy figures, the bureau reportedly asked schools to review their library books to comply with the new law, which prohibits acts of secession, subversion, terrorism and collusion with foreign forces.
For teachers who have “conduct issues” such as those who advocated their political positions, if schools do not cooperate with the bureau’s investigation, it could even revoke the headmaster’s and teachers’ licences.
Teachers and professors who spoke to the Guardian likened the intimidation they face to that during the Cultural Revolution – the tumultuous political movement in China that targeted intellectuals and other privileged classes.
Patrick Mo, a school teacher who has received a warning from the education bureau over a comment on his social media, said: “It is like being in the Cultural Revolution – every word you say can be used against you … You worry about getting into trouble so you self-censor.”
一位学校老师，帕特里克·莫（Patrick Mo），因其在社交媒体上发表的评论而受到教育局的警告。莫说：“这就像在文化大革命时期一样 – 你所说的每个字都可能被用来对付你…你因为担心惹上麻烦，所以进行自我审查。”
A history teacher who posted online remarks critical of police brutality during the protest last year found himself censured by police unions and the education authorities. He felt intimidated by scathing comments in the pro-Beijing press and groups protesting at the gate of his school. He kept his job but was barred from teaching liberal studies, a subject that has been widely blamed for “corrupting young minds”.
一位在去年的抗议活动中曾在网上发表批评警察暴行的言论的历史教师发现自己遭到警察工会和教育当局的谴责。 亲北京的新闻媒体和在他学校门口抗议的团体，使他感到受到了恐吓。 他虽保住了自己的工作，但被禁止教授通识教育，因为这一学科被指责会“腐蚀年轻人的思想”。
“I have to be careful with every word I say now,” he said. “We daren’t discuss protests and political issues anymore.”
After the passing of the national security law, some academics have also been asked to avoid politically sensitive content in their classes.
Critics said the attacks on outspoken academics and teachers over their political stance bodes ill for academic freedom in Hong Kong.
Shiu said academic institutions cannot be truly excellent unless scholars have freedom of speech and thought.
“You cannot do research in a bird cage,” he said. “It’s very bad education for our young people to be aware of red lines and no-go areas and then they have to toe the line.”
Prof Chan Kin-man, a co-founder of the 2014 movement who was released from jail earlier this year, said the Chinese authorities intended to launch a “thought reform” agenda, much like the political movements that targeted intellectuals in past decades.
今年早些时候从监狱获释的2014年运动的联合创始人陈建民教授说，中共当局打算启动 “思想改革” 议程，这就像过去几十年来针对知识分子的政治运动一样。
“For issues involving China, there will be standard answers that are favourable to the regime … and bolster the one-party rule,” the sociologist said. “Hong Kong will enter an anti-intellectual era where no independent thinking is allowed.”
编辑：【喜马拉雅战鹰团】Edited by：【Himalaya Hawk Squad】