Performance analysis (PA) in football is considered to be an integral component of understanding the requirements for optimal performance (Mclean et al, 2017). Performance analysis in sport is the examination of actual sports performance; additionally, performance analysis differentiates itself from alternative sport science disciplines (O’Donoghue, 2010). This is the case because performance analysis is only interested with actual performance instead of collecting information from scientific research or even reports such as questionnaires and interviews (O’Donoghue, 2010). The principal objective of performance analysis is that it aides’ coaches and players in their decision making in providing information on performance (Gonzalez- Rodenas et al, 2015). Furthermore, performance analysis is required, as it develops understanding and helps to inform decision making to enhance a team or individual performance (O’Donghue, 2010).
How has analysis been conducted in football?
Notational analysis is key in conducting analysis in football, it is a technique for analysing different aspects of football through a process which involves producing a permeant record of events (Gonzalez et al, 2015). Analysis can be conducted for the coach, as a coach may want to focus on the weaknesses of their team, and therefore would able to find to improve these weaknesses, additionally, it may be used to scout future opposition or to help team selection, moreover, match analysis systems can be set up to collect data on technical, behavioural, physical and tactical performance (Carling, Williams and Reily, 2005). Barris and Button (2008) suggested that notational analysis is used by coaches due to it being an inexpensive way of providing data about technical and tactical demands in sport, additionally, football is a right fit to use notational analysis as it establishes patterns of play and can capture a full match.
KPIs, Literature and Operational definitions
Justification of Performance indicators
set up for process of coding
Picture of timeline
Creation of Code Window
To be able to start the analysis process, a code window was built. A code window would consist of the performance indicators that a coach would want to see out of a game. For example, if the coach wanted to look at passing ability of the team, a pass in football could be tagged at the point when a player’s foot struck the ball, his timing is important if the event was going to be shown as a video clip, otherwise the event will be missed (O’Donoghue, 2014). The lead time and before the event and the lag time after the event, O’Donoghue (2014) suggested in individual sports the lead and lag time should be five seconds, however, due football being a slower and a team sport the lead and lag time was 8 seconds.
Why videos were used?
Movies are created for briefing and debriefing of games of a team’s strength and weaknesses and can even give individual feedback to the players, this occurred in the assignment by selecting events of interest, previewing the related video sequences and selecting the best clips to display and making into a standalone movie (O’Donoghue, 2014). Video-based performance analysis, tends to focus on the coach providing information to the athlete to help with additional extrinsic feedback which will add to the intrinsic feedback generated by the athlete and assist future performances, therefore video feedback would not only increase athlete’s performance in their sport, but would also increase motivation which would lead to an improvement in performances (Groom, 2012)
Why music is used in videos?
A study suggested when players watch a feedback video with a music track, more than half of the players felt it increased motivation, additionally, there was reported to be a positive impact when watching videos with music in improving confidence and performance of players returning from injury or experiencing poor performances (Middlemas, 2014)
Reliability reports and methods
Lago- Ballesteros and Lago- Penas (2011) studied performance indicators in football, which suggested papers failed to establish the reliability of the data. This could the issue of using raw data, as it is imperative to recognise the importance and the issues in using raw data. In performance analysis papers, there have been weak examples in using raw data, this would lead to dishonest practices where researchers would analyse the data; and publish results without recognising the problem (O’Donghue 2010). However, in this assignment the data was stored effectively in a database and was be reliable and valid as events can be categorised and recalled systematically through the program. (Hughes and Franks, 2015) The accuracy of timings are improved as the footage in sportcode allows matches to be slowed and even paused (Peters and O’Donoghue, 2013).
what is Inter- reliability?
The assessment of inter reliability is that it provides a way of quantifying the degree of agreement between two coders who make independent ratings about the variables of a subject (Hallgren,2012)
The inter- reliability test that was used in the study was Kappa reliability. Furthermore, Kappa relability works by it measures the observed level of agreement between coders of nominal variables and corrects for agreements that would be expected by chance, which would leave a Kappa value (O’Donghue 2010).
Kappa reliability is an efficient way of reliability testing in performance analysis in comparison to the inter- reliability test of percentage error. Many studies have rejected percentage error as an adequate measure of inter-reliability (Hallgren, 2012). This is because of percentage error produces infinite or undefined values when values are close to zero, which shows false results would have been collected (Kim and Kim, 2016).
The Kappa result be interpreted as follows: values ≤ 0 as indicating no agreement and 0.01–0.20 as none to slight, 0.21–0.40 as fair, 0.41– 0.60 as moderate, 0.61–0.80 as substantial, and 0.81–1.00 as almost perfect agreement (McHugh, 2012). The Kappa result was 0.89 in the assignment, shows there was a strong agreement
Picture of reliability timeline
Evidence of Kappa score n excel
Team line up
Strengths 1: Regains in central areas
- Regained the ball back in central areas well
- Looked to get players forward quickly, once regained the back from opponents
- Pressed the opponent on the ball well
- Pressed the opponent in pairs, therefore, more likely to regain the ball back
Strengths 2: Final third entries
- Got into the final attacking third on regular occurance
- Mixed up areas where attacking i.e. used the left, middle, and right of the attacking third
- Moved the ball quickly once in the final third
- Used width when attacking wide
Evidence of areas of attacking third
Strengths 3: Full back overlapping
- Exploited space behind opponents full backs
- Crossed the ball in when had the chance
- Both full backs were used
- Linked well with winger on there side of the pitch
- When England in possession, they were always an option and high up the pitch - a real attacking outlet for the team.
Strengths 4: England Defensive shape
- A solid formation of 4-5-1 when out of possession
- A solid line of 5 in midfield
- Let opponents have the ball in there own half, therefore did not loose shape
- A triangle of numbers 4,8,10, therefore opponents found it hard to penetrate through the middle of pitch.
- Moved crossed the pitch in a good shape when ball was switched or recycled by the opponent.
Strengths 5: Froward runs from midfield players
- Central midfielder runners breaking opposition lines and creating goal scoring opportunities
- Making runs behind defenders, exploiting space behind them
- Central midfielders linking together, where one would make the run and one would deliver the pass
- Lead to the goal
Weaknesses 1- Passing Sideways
- Did not look direct enough and exploit space behind defenders
- Did not want to take a risk
- To happy to keep possession of the ball, than look to create a goal scoring opportunity
- Did not see the good runs being ahead of the play
Evidence of issue of passing sideways
Evidence of issue of passing sideways
Weakness 2- Crossing
- Not having enough attacking players in goal scoring areas
- Attacking players not attacking the right areas
- Crosses lacked quality
- The biggest weakness
Prime target area
Hughes, (1990) study focused on finding the perfect area for the ball to be crossed in for the best chance for a goal scoring opportunity. He suggested that the area was to back of the defensive line, which was 2 yards out of the 6 yard box and the width of the 8 yard box (Chan, 2017).
Evidence where position of goal scoring in the premier league 2011/2012 season
Summary of play
England started the game well and played with a high tempo, however, in the second half they were too content to play possession football rather than getting the ball into goal scoring opportunities. England like to play wide and put crosses in to try and create a chance to score, however, the crosses lacked quality and therefore did not lead to a goal. England had good rotation of midfield players with breaking opponent’s lines, allowing space to be exploited behind the full backs and in behind the centre backs. England’s other attacking threat was the attacking full backs and overlapping, linking with wingers on either side of the pitch, consistently getting to the byline and putting crosses into the box, causing difficulty for the opponents to defend against. England entered the attacking third on a regular occurrence, but was let down by the final ball and therefore did create a goal from open play. Additionally, when the opponents had the ball, England’s shape of 4-5-1 made it difficult for the opponents to break them down. The improvement needed for the next game is that they were too negative in possession, they missed out on through balls which could of lead to goal scoring chances, instead they either passed the ball back or sideways, missing chances to score goals. Overall, England should have had enough quality to win the game, and would have been disappointed to concede a goal in the last minute due to a lack of concentration, however, Eric Diers free kick was a real highlight and would of give the team confidence going into the forthcoming matches.
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