Virtual Museum: Physical Environment Artifacts By: Emilio, Rory and Sean K

Ancient Egyptian Boats - By: Emilio

Old Papyrus Boats

One of the first Egyptian boats were made of papyrus. First seen in 4000 B.C, these boats were small, easy to make and ideal for fishing trips and short trips to other sides of the nile. Since these were easy to make, if it broke or needed replacement, it would be cheap to get another replacement boat. However one downside is that lots of papyrus was needed to make a boat which could have been used to make paper or other structures.

Standard Wooden Boats

In 3000 B.C, the first wooden boat came out with cotton sails and the boat made of acacia wood found in Egypt and cedar wood from Lebanon. The good thing about this is that now the boat can carry more people and cargo, repairs aren't needed as much and also boat rides would be cheaper. Along with the improvement of the wooden boat, more types of boats were opened up.

Merchant ( Cargo ) Boats

These cargo ships, or merchant boats, held goods to transport between each side of Egypt and also could carry the 500 ton stone bricks used to build the pyramid! That was pretty cool considering that it was so long ago.

Funerary Boat

Back then, the Egyptians believed that to get to the afterlife, you would need a boat to get you there. If you were wealthy enough, a full scale boat would be placed in the boat, or if you couldn't afford it, you could just get a model boat instead.

Cat Bastets - By: Sean Kim

This artifact is a bastet statue. It is, as you can see, a shape of a cat, which is actually the domesticated cat form of the goddess, Bastet. She will be more explained later. This artifact shows how important cats were to ancient Egypt, considered as the most important animal in ancient Egypt. This artifact also tells us about the physical environment of ancient Egypt.

Cats are part of physical environment in Egypt, as they are animals, and animals are part of physical environment as they were created naturally. Cats were first used for getting rid of scavengers like mice, rats and snakes, which threatened all the grain stores. They also helped them to avoid larger predators, so the ancient Egyptians allowed cat indoors, and nearly all homes had a cat also because of the fact that they believed that cats has magical powers, for example, they believed that cats guarded children and homes. Cats were so important to ancient Egypt so they even killed people if they killed cats, even accidentally! They also mummified cats! A tomb found in Beni Hassan, discovered in 1888 contained at least 80,000 cat burials! The ancient Egyptians believed that seeing a cat in your dreams meant that you will have a good harvest.

This artifact also shows about religion in egypt because this statue, as I said earlier, is the domesticated cat form of the goddess, Bastet, and we can learn about her, and goddesses count as religion. She is half cat and half woman in her normal form, and is the egyptian goddess of the home, domesticity, women's secrets, cats, fertility, and childbirth. She protected the homes from evil spirits and disease, especially diseases associated with women and children, and also played a role in the afterlife as a guide and helper to the dead, although this was not one of her primary duties. She was the daughter of the sun god Ra, the god who created everything, and also known as the sun god.

This bastet statue shows us about two characteristics of civilization, physical environment and religion. This artifact is important because it tells us about the physical environment, how important cats were to ancient Egyptians and it tells us about the goddess Bastet. This artifact will benefit the future as it would help students and adults know more about ancient Egypt, especially the physical environment and the religion.

Flax - By: Rory Blakeley

The artefact flax, an important part of Egyptian life, is a plant that grows in fields next to the Nile River and produces linen cloth. The linen cloth was an everyday part of Egypt, and the flax plant was grown all along the Nile River. Flax was considered to Egypt as a symbol of purity and divine light, and was known as a gift of the Nile. This artefact is related to the physical environment because it was grown from the rich soil beside the Nile River.

Flax for Mummies

The artifact flax was used in all aspects of the Egyptian civilization, in areas including clothes and sails for a boat, and mummification. Flax is planted as seeds next to the Nile River, and there are many steps in the process of growing them tall. Firstly, by planting the seeds close together, they will grow taller and more healthy. The finest or “royale linen” was produced from the younger flax plants, which were pulled out of the ground before the seeds sprouted from the top of the plant. Known as the “land of linen”, linen was used in Egyptian mummification. In mummification, the dead were wrapped with linen cloth, to prepare their journey to the Afterlife. As the Egyptians had a social scale, different grades of cloth were used for different social classes. The best quality linen, when the weave is finer, is used for those higher in the social hierarchy. Sometimes as much as 300 yards of cloth was used to wrap one mummy.

The artifact flax was used in all aspects of the Egyptian civilization, in areas including clothes and sails for a boat, and mummification. Flax is planted as seeds next to the Nile River, and there are many steps in the process of growing them tall. Firstly, by planting the seeds close together, they will grow taller and more healthy. The finest or “royale linen” was produced from the younger flax plants, which were pulled out of the ground before the seeds sprouted from the top of the plant. Known as the “land of linen”, linen was used in Egyptian mummification. In mummification, the dead were wrapped with linen cloth, to prepare their journey to the Afterlife. As the Egyptians had a social scale, different grades of cloth were used for different social classes. The best quality linen, when the weave is finer, is used for those higher in the social hierarchy. Sometimes as much as 300 yards of cloth was used to wrap one mummy.

By soaking the flax in water, the Egyptians would beat the fibres from the plant’s woody core. After this, the fibers were loosely twisted together before sent for spinning into thread, and woven into linen cloth. Varying in natural colors, the linen cloth is hard to dye and so is usually left in its natural golden state. Egypt exported many yards of linen for sails, as the flax produced in the Nile was meant to be much softer than other kinds. Flax is continued to be made today as linen for sailboats and is exported from Egypt for sailboats around the world. Egypt is also a major provider of Flax linen for clothes, and is sent to clothes stores around the world.

This artefact shows the importance of linen in the Egyptian civilization, in the areas of mummification and boats. The linen is related to the physical environment and represents a symbol of purity and divine light for Egyptians. It is also known as a gift from the Nile, as it is grown along the Nile River. The flax plant was and still is an important part of Egyptian life, and is still used today for producing linen.

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