Jim Crow Laws by Emily Valadez

(P) "Jim Crow" refers to laws that were passed in the South of the U.S after the Reconstruction period that restricted the rights and privileges of African Americans. (Brown)
(P) The term Jim Crow came from a fictional character that was a happy and simpleminded country slave. It later referred to African Americans and then the laws restricting their rights. (Brown)
(Q) According to the article White Only, "these laws were intended to restrict social contact between whites and other groups and to limit the freedom and opportunity of people of color".
(S) The phrase "separate but equal" enforced separate facilities and services for African Americans.
(Q) It was mentioned in the article "Jim Crow" that "African Americans struggled against Jim Crow through protests, writing, acts of defiance, and numerous other means" (Brown). (S) African Americans and whites came together and began the process of nonviolent protests in order to help the blacks regain their civil rights and freedoms. (Brown)
(S) The March on Washington was an event at the Lincoln Memorial in which over 250,000 people arrived to listen to various speeches. (Brown)
(Q) Black Nadir was considered a peak in racism in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Brown explained this in the article by stating "Jim Crow laws ruled the lives of most African Americans in addition to a myriad of customs, rules, and unwritten laws that reinforced white supremacy"(Brown)
(P) The American media played an important role in displaying racial stereotypes. The television, newspapers, and shows strengthened the images of African Americans.
(Q) In 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act which "outlawed discrimination in public accommodations, outlawed discrimination in employment based on race, sex, or national origin, and desegregated schools" (Brown). (Q) President Lyndon B. Johnson also signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which "abolished all forms of discrimination in voting, including the poll tax, literacy test, understanding clauses, and grandfather clauses" (Brown).

Works Cited

Bos, Carole "Jim Crow Laws" AwesomeStories.com. Aug 01, 2005. Apr 02, 2017. <https://www.awesomestories.com/asset/view/Jim-Crow-Laws>.

Brown, Nikki and Barry Stentiford. "Jim Crow." The American Mosaic: The African American Experience, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Africanamerican.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/1456086. Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.

50th Anniversary of MLK’s March on Washington. Digital image. REDF. N.p., 28 Aug. 2013. Web. 2 Apr. 2017. <http://redf.org/50th-anniversary-of-mlks-march-on-washington/>.

JIM CROW LAWS, 1939. - A Segregated Water Fountain at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Photographed by Russell Lee, 1939.. Fine Art. Britannica ImageQuest, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 May 2016. quest.eb.com/search/140_1637139/1/140_1637139/cite. Accessed 30 Mar 2017.

Li, Blessia. "School Segregation During Nadir." Wheaton Academy US History. N.p., 26 Mar. 2015. Web. 2 Apr. 2017. <http://wathepeople.blogspot.com/2015/03/school-segregation-during-nadir.html>.

Rutenburg, Jim. A Dream Undone. Digital image. New York Times Magazine. N.p., 29 July 2015. Web. 2 Apr. 2017. <https://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/29/magazine/voting-rights-act-dream-undone.html?_r=0>.

Sheet Music Cover for 'The Original Jim Crow', Written by Thomas Dartmouth 'Daddy' Rice (lithograph) . Lithograph. Britannica ImageQuest, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 May 2016. quest.eb.com/search/108_4064117/1/108_4064117/cite. Accessed 30 Mar 2017.

"White Only: Jim Crow in America." American History. Morgan Stanley, n.d. Web. 2 Apr. 2017. <http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/1-segregated/white-only-1.h>.

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