-The sensorimotor stage begins from birth and lasts until around two years of age
-This stage is described by Piaget as the first part of cognitive development and focuses around the young infant and how they experience the world through the senses (i.e. sight, smell, hearing, touch, taste)
-The main achievement of this stage is the establishment of object permanence, which is knowing that an object is present even while it is obscured from view
-This ability to recall an object even after it has left the line of sight is considered a schema
-A schema is the basic block of intelligent behavior and is defined by Piaget as "a cohesive, repeatable action sequence possessing component actions that are tightly interconnected and governed by a core meaning"
-Wadsworth made a statement in 2004 saying that schemata are like index cards telling someone how to respond to different stimuli
-At this stage children begin to think of words and items symbolically, for instance they may see an American flag and associate it with the military or the president, instead of seeing it as a cloth on a stick
-At this stage of development most children are still egocentric and fail to see the world from another perspective
-The beginnings of language plays a vital role in representing objects, as well as thoughts and ideas
-Children at this stage do not understand the concept of conservation (i.e. having two cups of identical amounts of water, then pouring one cup into a slimmer glass causing the water line to move up on the glass, if asking child which glass contains more water they will chose the taller glass.)
Concrete Operational Stage
-This stage is considered a major point in a child's cognitive developmental stage as they begin to start thinking logically/use operational thought
-When children begin to think logically/operational they begin solving problems they come across in their head instead of using a physical representation to understand.
-At this stage children should fully develop the concept of conservation
-Children at this stage develop the Theory of mind which states that they are able to take another persons perspective and can try to understand their mental state
Formal Operational Stage
-At this point of cognitive development children begin to demonstrate the use of abstract reasoning, metacognition, trial and error, hypothesis testing, and being able to manipulate objects in their mind without having a physical form for that object present
-Metacognition is higher order thinking, for example planning how to surmount an educational task, monitoring comprehension and evaluating the total progress made towards the completion of a certain task
-Abstract reasoning is the ability to change the way you would normally think when presented with a certain task, this includes the ability to identify patterns, logical rules, and new trends which are not immediately present upon first glance.
-It is important to know that not all adults reach this stage or reach this stage and fully comprehend more advance ways of thinking
Criticisms of Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory
-Many critics say that Piaget assumed lesser of children and set his standards too low, and overlooked the theory of mind concept
-Critics also say that Piaget presented stages of learning as more stagnant than continuous