Christopher Columbus: Spain 1492-1502- travelled to Bahamas Hispaniola. Found water route from Europe to Asia, found americas
Amerigo Vespucci: Spain (Italian) 1499- travelled to South America Amazon river. Clarified the islands that Columbus explored, Americas is named after him
Henry Hudson: Dutch (english) 1609-1611- travelled to New York. Found a northwest passage to China, Dutch colonization
Hernan Cortes: Spain 1519-1521- traveled to Cuba Yucatan Peninsula. Rescued a spaniard collapse of aztecs
Francisco Pizarro: spain 1532-1538- traveled to Peru to seek fortune founded peru- allowed more advances into South America
Juan Ponce de Leon: Spain 1513 traveled to Florida for wealth, land, "fountain of youth" Spain claimed Puerto Rico and St. Augustine FL.
Hernando de Soto: spain 1539-1542 -traveled to Mississippi River. Found the city of gold ,Part of civil war in Peru
Jacques Cartier: France 1534-1542 traveled to St. Lawrence River. Northwest passage from america to asia Opened region up to exploration
Anasaki: most powerful Indians in southwest. Their architectural designs are still being used.
Aztec- Native empire in Mexico, controlling empire till conquered by Cortes. Practice human sacrifice and controlled trade.
Cahokia- Native American settlement in East St. Louis
Incans-South American controlling empire till conquered by Pizarro. Main focus was agriculture.
Iroquois Confederacy- Indian confederation in New York and the eastern Great Lakes. Played a role in the French and English conflicts
Powhatan- Chief of Indian tribe near Jamestown. Wanted peace between colonist and Indians. Daughter is Pocahontas who "saved" John Smith, and ended the a war between the colonist and Indians.
John Winthrop- Led English puritans into the New World. Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony; shaping its goverment
Puritans- Protestants that focused on destroying all Roman Catholic practices from the Anglican Church.
Quakers- Foundation by George Fox of Christians, helped found Pennsylvania.
Alien and Sedation act- was enacted by John Adams. Four bills making it harder and more limitations on immigration. Sedition act prevented the speaking against the U.S. goverment
Ben Franklin-tried to improve the American society. Wrote the Declaration of Independence and the Pennsylvania Gazette. Founded the American Philosophical Society
Citizen Genet- Tried to gain military support for the French during the French Revolution
Battle of Little Bighorn:Custer and all his men were killed by Sioux Indians at the Battle of Little Bighorn
Battle of wounded knee:The massacre at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota effectively ended Indian resistance to white settlement on the Plains.
Chinese: worked on railroads. Highly educated
Germans:Germans tended to live in tight-knit communities in western land. More rich escaped for political reasons
Irish: moved because of potatoe famine.westward and immigrants coming into ester ports, the immigrants worked in the factories.
Southern and Eastern European
Native American treatment: Many natives were killed then the rest for forced to convert to the U.S. culture
Chief Joseph:chief of Idaho's Nez Perce Indians who, after a long campaign, finally surrendered to U.S.
Dawes Severalty Act:Indian tribal lands were split up into individual land lots. Indian children sent to boarding schools
Fredrick Jackson Turner:believed going west would develop America historically
Geronimo:Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico, fought against the white man
Gold Mining: increase and use of immigration
Helen Hunt Jackson:wrote about the government's actions against the Indians
Jane Adams & Hull House: Advocate for better lifestyle for the poor and immigrant
Sand Creek Massacre:an attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians
Bracero program-agreement with Mexico for mexicans to be temporary agricultural workers during the war
California segregation- more diversity in schools due to court cases
Emergency Quota Act-3% of each European nationality who lived in the U.S. in 1910 were allowed to immigrate to the U.S. annually.
Espionage and Sedition Act- prohibited taking bad about America, refusing military duties, or aiding the enemy
Jewish refugees in US- due to Restrictive immigration laws and the hostility of the State Department and southern Democrats few were let in
Nuremburg Laws-Stripped Jews of their civil rights and property if they tried to leave Germany
Sacco and Vanzetti case-charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory. many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities