Other Minorities Key concept

Period 1

Christopher Columbus: Spain 1492-1502- travelled to Bahamas Hispaniola. Found water route from Europe to Asia, found americas

Amerigo Vespucci: Spain (Italian) 1499- travelled to South America Amazon river. Clarified the islands that Columbus explored, Americas is named after him

Henry Hudson: Dutch (english) 1609-1611- travelled to New York. Found a northwest passage to China, Dutch colonization

Hernan Cortes: Spain 1519-1521- traveled to Cuba Yucatan Peninsula. Rescued a spaniard collapse of aztecs

Francisco Pizarro: spain 1532-1538- traveled to Peru to seek fortune founded peru- allowed more advances into South America

Juan Ponce de Leon: Spain 1513 traveled to Florida for wealth, land, "fountain of youth" Spain claimed Puerto Rico and St. Augustine FL.

Hernando de Soto: spain 1539-1542 -traveled to Mississippi River. Found the city of gold ,Part of civil war in Peru

Jacques Cartier: France 1534-1542 traveled to St. Lawrence River. Northwest passage from america to asia Opened region up to exploration

Anasaki: most powerful Indians in southwest. Their architectural designs are still being used.

Aztec- Native empire in Mexico, controlling empire till conquered by Cortes. Practice human sacrifice and controlled trade.

Cahokia- Native American settlement in East St. Louis

Incans-South American controlling empire till conquered by Pizarro. Main focus was agriculture.

Iroquois Confederacy- Indian confederation in New York and the eastern Great Lakes. Played a role in the French and English conflicts

Powhatan- Chief of Indian tribe near Jamestown. Wanted peace between colonist and Indians. Daughter is Pocahontas who "saved" John Smith, and ended the a war between the colonist and Indians.

Period 2

John Winthrop- Led English puritans into the New World. Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony; shaping its goverment

Puritans- Protestants that focused on destroying all Roman Catholic practices from the Anglican Church.

Quakers- Foundation by George Fox of Christians, helped found Pennsylvania.

Period 3

Alien and Sedation act- was enacted by John Adams. Four bills making it harder and more limitations on immigration. Sedition act prevented the speaking against the U.S. goverment

Ben Franklin-tried to improve the American society. Wrote the Declaration of Independence and the Pennsylvania Gazette. Founded the American Philosophical Society

Citizen Genet- Tried to gain military support for the French during the French Revolution

Period 4

5 civilized tribes: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole. Tried to conform to white culture

Indian removal act:Jackson's removal of indians from their lands in already established states to lands west of the Mississippi

Nativism-laws to discourage immigration

Rise of Irish and German: Immigration of the Europeans, took the lowest jobs

Trail of Tears: Indian journey to lands west of the Mississiyppi from the Indian removal act

Period 6

Battle of Little Bighorn:Custer and all his men were killed by Sioux Indians at the Battle of Little Bighorn

Battle of wounded knee:The massacre at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota effectively ended Indian resistance to white settlement on the Plains.

Chinese: worked on railroads. Highly educated

Germans:Germans tended to live in tight-knit communities in western land. More rich escaped for political reasons

Irish: moved because of potatoe famine.westward and immigrants coming into ester ports, the immigrants worked in the factories.

Southern and Eastern European

Native American treatment: Many natives were killed then the rest for forced to convert to the U.S. culture

Chief Joseph:chief of Idaho's Nez Perce Indians who, after a long campaign, finally surrendered to U.S.

Chinese exclusion act:excluded Chinese immigrant workers for ten years and denied U.S. citizenship to Chinese nationals living in the United States

Dawes Severalty Act:Indian tribal lands were split up into individual land lots. Indian children sent to boarding schools

Fredrick Jackson Turner:believed going west would develop America historically

Geronimo:Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico, fought against the white man

Gold Mining: increase and use of immigration

Helen Hunt Jackson:wrote about the government's actions against the Indians

Jane Adams & Hull House: Advocate for better lifestyle for the poor and immigrant

Sand Creek Massacre:an attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians

Period 7

Anti-German hysteria in WW1- due to propaganda any German like mindset was forbidden in America and Germans were wither persecuted or "Americanized"

Bracero program-agreement with Mexico for mexicans to be temporary agricultural workers during the war

California segregation- more diversity in schools due to court cases

Emergency Quota Act-3% of each European nationality who lived in the U.S. in 1910 were allowed to immigrate to the U.S. annually.

Espionage and Sedition Act- prohibited taking bad about America, refusing military duties, or aiding the enemy

Jewish refugees in US- due to Restrictive immigration laws and the hostility of the State Department and southern Democrats few were let in

Japanese internment camps- took Japanese for their homes and placed them in camps while depriving them of their basic rights in fear of them aiding the enemy

Nuremburg Laws-Stripped Jews of their civil rights and property if they tried to leave Germany

Sacco and Vanzetti case-charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory. many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities


Created with images by Hans - "sail ship sailing vessel" • fr_golay - "priest face rajasthan" • skeeze - "new york city 1890 vintage" • Toronto History - "Children of The Ward" • Loco Steve - "Chinese Iron Rail Workers Tribute : ( 2 Views)" • dalecruse - "Dachau Concentration Camp workers"

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