Mary (wife of Owen and mother to be of James) had worked long hours in a munitions factory and had miscarried a year before this pregnancy. Two of her sons had gone to war and one was killed aged 19, the other returned but could not find work in the Valleys, He moved to London and did not visit his parents very often. Her husband had become distant. Mary blamed herself for this distance and her miscarriage because of taking work in the factory which her husband had forbid. Things were different! Nobody discussed it and life carried on.
After a dramatic period of development during the first eight weeks (the embryonic period) the Foetal period begins and ends in birth. The major organ systems continue to develop and assume their specialised functions.
According to Glover (2011) During pre-natal development, pathways are being formed that influence the way the child will deal with events during the lifespan development. These pathways deal with learning, thinking and responses to stress
James moved up to primary school education. It is a time of slower physical growth but faster intellectual development. He was apprehensive about moving to the new school but it was next door to his old school. Although there were a lot of new children he had never met before, James was soon to realise that they were from family’s he knew and some, the brothers and sisters of his class mates who had moved to the new school with him. James had been separated at this school from his friend, who was in another class, for a while he struggled to fit in but overtime he settled. He did however during the whole of his school life consider this child to be his best friend and would go to him during play time in preference to his own class mates.
We could use the ideographic versus nomothetic debate to understand why he has a need to stay within certain friendships .
James was now developing into an adult; he was adjusting to social and cultural influences as his family and community saw him develop into a Man and with this adjustment he was modifying his behaviour to be socially accepted, or at least accepted the way he felt was appropriate.
During the transition from childhood to adulthood James went through changes in Primary sex characteristics and other bodily changes due to hormonal increases, His physical appearance was changing and he seemed to be coping psychologically. This was a rapid change and was not without difficulties for James as he was critical of his self-image and strived to behave and look a certain way. Influences, on his behaviour such as family, culture and the environment had influenced his responses to change and at this stage of his life he was keen to portray a certain identity.
According to Piaget, (1963) It is at this stage that cognitive development is rapid, during the transition into adulthood the child’s concept of the world changes and he starts to look at his place in it. He is becoming much more judgemental about his family, friends and society.
During late adulthood, James had been made redundant from the mines. He never worked again! He had some minor health issues, however he blamed the closure of the mines on his unemployment.
Depression set in for James at this point. It may be that pathways developed during the prenatal stage of life had become maladaptive. Although he had more than 15 years of working life left he felt that to move away from his family was too not possible, he thought of himself as a Miner who was unemployed. It was not conceivable to him or his family that he could be anything else. Social influences helped him maintain his identity within his community.