Life with Diabetes Ana, Aspen, Bailey, Chelsea, Lauren, Hailey, Liam, & Rhianna

Type One & Type Two Diabetes

General Background on the Biology of Diabetes
  • In Type 1 Diabetes, the body does not produce insulin.
  • When you have Type 2 Diabetes, it means that your body does not use insulin properly. Diabetes is a disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels and cause by insufficient insulin or the inability of the insulin to function properly. In a Type 2 Diabetic, insulin does not fit into the receptor site on the cell and does not let glucose into the cell.
Basic Recommendations of a Diabetic Diet
  • A healthy, balanced diet is also important for people with Type 1 Diabetes. A diet lower in fat, sugar, and salt is optimum for diabetics.
  • With Type 2 Diabetes, life is pretty normal. Diets must consist of little sugar, so blood sugar levels do not go too high. Maintaining an average blood sugar level is very important. Sugar-free foods and sugar in moderation are the main parts of a normal diabetic diet.
Blood Sugar Monitoring
  • In order to maintain healthy blood sugar levels, people with diabetes need to monitor their levels. To monitor, on clean hands, use a lancing device to prick a finger and place a drop of blood on a test strip, then wait for the monitor to display results.
  • Target ranges for Diabetics include:
  • A1C: 7%
  • eAG: 154 mg/ dL
  • Before meals: 80-130 mg/ dL
  • 1-2 Hours after: Less than 180 mg/ dL
  • An A1C is essentially the average glucose levels over a span of time. eAG is the same value as A1C but is expressed in mg/ dL whereas A1C is expressed as a percent.
  • Diabetics can also do urine checks but they are not as accurate.
  • Diabetics should also check for ketones.
"Ketone is a chemical produced when there is a shortage of insulin in the blood and the body breaks down body fat for energy. Ketones in the urine is a sign that your body is using fat for energy instead of using glucose because not enough insulin is available to use glucose for energy".
Recommendations for Exercise and Lifestyle
  • With Type 1, it is very important to balance your insulin doses with the food you eat and the activity that you do-- even if you are just doing house of yard work. Planning ahead and knowing your body's typical blood glucose from going too low or too high.
  • Walking
  • Jogging/ running
  • Tennis
  • Basketball
  • Swimming
  • Biking
  • For type 2 diabetes, 150 min/week of physical activity and diet-induced weight loss of 5-7% reduced the risk of progression from Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes by 58%. Staying fit and active will keep your blood glucose level in the correct range. This prevents long-term complications such as nerve pain and kidney disease. Exercise helps weather you are insulin resistant or if you have enough. Your muscles get the glucose they need, and your glucose level goes down.
Biomedical Professionals Related to Diabetes
  • Nutritionist: a nutritionist can help you understand how different foods affect your blood glucose and learning to develop solid meal plans.
  • Primary Care Physician: can help you find other specialists to help you or an endocrinologist.
  • Psychologist: Help make a healthy lifestyle possible. Find strategies to regularly test glucose levels. Help people with Type 1 to not become depressed or to help them get out of depression.


Information from the American Diabetes Association

American Diabetes Association. (n.d.). Retrieved December 15, 2016, from


Created with images by Jill A. Brown - "Diabetes" • cogdogblog - "40 Years on the Stick" • Daria-Yakovleva - "tomatoes vegetables food" • cogdogblog - "Home A1C" • skeeze - "running runner long distance" • Unsplash - "computer business typing" • Pexels - "screen technology computer"

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