La Historia de España By: Riley Pennington y 8Corazones

Spain was a great place to refuel, trade, stop and pause, and repair damaged ships. As people realized how beneficial this land was, they began to invadir.

Celtic Village in Spain

The first group of people to invade Spain were the Celtas. They were nice people that meant no harm, and took only the western half of Spain. The second group to invade was the Iberos, who took the Eastern part of Spain. The Iberos had a great idea- why not vivir together as one? This formed the group of the Celtiberos. This was the first actual civilization in Spain, where people from both the Celtas and the Iberos lived together in harmony... or so they thought.

Roman Soldiers invading Spain

Rome was constantly en expansión. The Roman Soldiers were extremely powerful and had no resistance. They arrived in Spain and quickly took it over, killing everyone in sight. This did not last for long though. The Kingdom of the Visigoths did the same as the Romans did- kill, steal, and pillage.

The Moors were next. Arabs, Berbers, and Syrians from North Africa came to the peninsula in 711 A.D. They were using Spain as an escape due to their religious and cultural persecutions in Africa. They easily derrotado the Visigoth Kingdoms, conquering nearly all of the península.

There was a continual fight between Christian Kingdoms in the north, and Muslims, who revisado the south. Those who were not killed, went home to continue practicing their religion. Santiago: "matamoros" was the Patron saint of Spain who said it was okay to kill Muslims.

Toledo- the City of Tolerance

Religion did not matter in Toledo. Jews, Muslims, and Christians experto their religions in synagogues, churches, cathedrals, with Arab style architecture.

El Cid was the hero of La Reconquista in 1492. In the same year, Moors had been dividido into many small kingdoms to keep as much control as possible. The last Moorish king was defeated in January of 1492.

Historic Granada

After this, Catholic Kings came to power and the Muslims were now gone. Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castilla were casado in 1469, uniting Christian kingdoms. This solidified their poder through religious and military success and ended La Reconquista by defeating the Moors in Granada in 1492.


In 1492, the last Moorish king was defeated. all muslims remaining in Spain were forced to either leave or convert to Christianity.

In 1502, given the success against the Muslims, it was decided that all Jews needed to leave Spain or convertir to Christianity.

How did the persecutors know if they had converted to Christianity though? They began to interrogar and tortura them until they confessed, or put them on trial to later execute them.


People married not just for the money, but also for the power. Gold diggers were people who only used their power to get what they wanted.

Juana, the daughter of Fernando and Isabel married Felipe of the powerful Habsburg family. the Habsburgs gobernó Spain for a long time. Juana became mentally ill and was called "La Loca."

It is said that when Felipe died, Juana carried his coffin through the streets of Granada, stopping often to kiss the cadáver of her dead husband.


Carlos I ruled from 1516-1556. He was the son of Juana and Felipe. As the Holy Roman Emperor, he changed his name to Charles V of Austria. Under his rule, the Spanish Empire grew rapidly. Gold and Silver inundado into Spain from the Americas, along with new crops: corn, potatoes, and fruits.

Carlos V used the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to subvencionar the many religious wars he was fighting across Europe. Spain under Carlos V became one of the staunchest defenders of Catholicism, as it fought to stop the spread of the Protestant Reformation across Europe. He passed on his legacy to his successor, his son Felipe.


Felipe II continued wars against the Provinces. In 1554, he married Mary Tudor of England in an arrest to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have to become King of England; however, there was no son and the protestant Elizabeth I came to power in England. He anexo Portugal, and the Dutch declared independence from Spain. This began a war involving England and Spain. In 1588, Spain's "invencible" Armada was defeated by England.

Spain is now considered the "sewer of the world". The kings and queens ate children. It was propaganda to not travel to Spain


He was a famous painter from Greece who traveled to Spain in search of work in the decoration of El Escorial. Felipe II hated his style and refused to alquiler him. He moved to Toledo and made a great impression.

Felipe was then tenido éxito by his son, the aptly named Felipe III who controlled Spain from 1598-1621. Felipe III died and his son took the throne. His name was Felipe IV and he reigned from 1621-1665. He reigned over one of the richest cultural periods in Spanish history: the Siglo de Oro.

Siglo de Oro

Felipe IV's son, Carlos II was known as "El Hechizado" which means "the bewitched." He died in 1700, leaving no heredero to ascend to the throne of Spain. This called for war. War of the Spanish Succession pitted royal families and their nations against each other to see who would rule Spain. The war ended in 1773, with Spain losing Gibraltar to the English. Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, became King of Spain. The Bourbon family still remains the royal family of Spain today.

Depiction of the Bourbon Castle

The Bourbons were competent rulers, but were more concerned with life at court. They made efforts to convert Spain into a modern state based on Neoclásico ideas on the enlightenment.

Charles IV was the grandson of Felipe V. He dealt with Napoleon which lead to the use of lots of dynamite. On May 2, 1808, a rebellion in Madrid began the War of Spanish independence. Joseph Bonaparte was remoto from the throne of Spain in 1812. Most of the colonies in America gained independence. The Constitution of 1812 established a parliamentary democracy.


He was the son of Carlos IV who returned from exile in France to rule after defeat of Napoleon’s troops. They were under Totalitarian rule, constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on Constitution of 1812. You gastado your life in prison if you did not support the ruling. He died in 1833, leaving only a daughter, Isabel. The country was divided on the issue of a woman ruler.

Supporters of Fernando’s brother, Carlos faced off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “Guerras Carlistas."

Isabel II ruled through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opposing her authority. The “Glorious Revolución” removed Isabel II from power in 1868. A short-lived experiment placed King Amadeo de Saboya, an Italian, on the throne from 1870-1873. The First Spanish Republic is proclaimed in 1873 but quickly ends in 1874.

Here we go again... The Bourbons devuelto to the throne with the reign of Alfonso XII from 1875-1885, followed by his son Alfonso XIII from 1902-1931. Alfonso XIII was born in 1885 (shortly after his father’s death) and his mother oversaw the government as his regent. In typical Bourbon fashion, Spain quickly begins a downslide, marked by the loss of it last remaining colonies in 1898 and embarrassing military defeats in Morocco.

Alfonso XII was unable to put a stop to the political tensión and low morale of the country. He allowed a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923 - 1931. The dictatorship was unable to solve the problems of the country. In 1931, elections were held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try.

Second Republic of Spain

The Second Republic of Spain was established in 1931, ushering in an era of esperanza and optimismo. They set up a new, progressive constitution, which gave women the right to vote, allowed divorce, separated the Church from the State, and created public schools.

The new government created an even deeper political and social divide. The military, the Church and the upper classes thought there were too many changes going on. Socialists and communist facciones thought that there were not enough changes and wanted more change faster.

The Spanish Civil War began...

General Francisco staged a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War. He did not like the way the government was happening. Republican forces got very little help. The war ended in 1939, with Franco's Nationalist forces winning.


He was a fascist dictador of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. He idealized “glory years” of Spain under carlos V and Felipe II.

Basque terrorist group assassinated Franco’s chosen sucesor. Franco chose grandson of Alfonso XIII to take over. Upon Franco’s death in 1975, Juan Carlos I de Bourbon became King of Spain.

Instead of continuing Franco’s policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declared democracy in Spain. He named Adolfo Suarez as the first Prime Minister. Suarez began the period known as the Transición. In 1978, Suarez was elected in the first elections held in Spain since 1936. In the 1980’s, Felipe Gonzalez lead Spain out of isolation, joining NATO and the EU. Jose Maria Aznar increased Spain’s influence in the world, with a growing economy and strong alliance with the USA.

On March 11, 2004 Islamic fundamentalistas terrorists placed bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 and injuring over 2000.

2 days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain. His first action, as promised, was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq. Under his gobierno, Spain joined several other European nations in legalizing same-sex (gender) matrimonio (Franco rolls in grave). He won re-election in 2008.

As a parliamentary monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the Government.



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