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中共摘取器官的证据! 【中英对照翻译】

作者: 马修.罗伯逊(Matthew P. Robertson

May 15, 2020 04:06 PM Age: 3 hours

翻译/简评:johnwallis

PR:Roberts

简评:

本报告是调查中共国器官移植机制系列文章的第二部分,作者马修.罗伯逊探讨和研究了中共国从良心犯身上摘取器官的证据,少数族裔也成为这类事件的受害者。中共的良心犯在监禁期间被系统地进行了器官功能、健康状况、血型和组织类型的检测,这样可以按要求处决摘取器官获利;调查发现器官移植医务人员的身份也是镇压法轮功的中共干部;为了达到掩人耳目的目的,中共国的医疗机构还伪造了有关自愿捐献者的数据系统;与对待法轮功类似,中共当局对于维吾尔族少数族裔进行法外和不负责任的控制;在过去20多年来发展起来的器官移植机制中,中共党员在执行器官移植任务的过程中获得了高额的个人利益。

人的生命是无价的,而中共竟然通过医学技术手段肆意强行剥夺良心犯的生命,通过器官移植来获利及完成中共党员的利益输送,这是怎样的一个邪恶的组织,上天都不会放过这些在器官移植产业链中的非法获利者。

原文:

Examining China’s Organ Transplantation System: The Nexus of Security, Medicine, and Predation / Part 2: Evidence for the Harvesting of Organs from Prisoners of Conscience

调查中共国的器官移植机制:安全、医学和掠夺的纽带/第二部分:从良心犯身上摘取器官的证据

Image: Zheng Shusen (郑树森) (center), is a leading liver transplant surgeon and anti-Falun Gong CCP cadre (see discussion further below). Lou Zhilang (楼志浪) (left) is head of the Zhejiang Province 610 Office, an extralegal CCP agency focused on the suppression of Falun Gong; and Lu Shanzeng (鲁善增) (right) is a CCP party secretary in the Zhejiang Province science office. Here, the three men are part of a panel at an “anti-cult” (反邪教, fan xiejiao) conference in October 2010. (Source: Zhejiang University of Water Resources and Power, October 26, 2010)

图:郑树森(中),著名的肝移植外科医生、反法轮功中共干部(详见下文讨论)。楼志浪(左)是浙江省610办公室的负责人,这是一个专注于镇压法轮功的中共法外机构;鲁善增(右)是浙江省科举办的中共党委书记。图中三人为2010年10月的 "反邪教"小组成员。(来源:浙江水利电力大学2010年10月26日)

Editor’s Note: For many years, stories have circulated about instances of alleged involuntary organ harvesting in the People’s Republic of China. However, due to the difficulty of confirming these accounts—and due perhaps as well to their lurid and disturbing nature—the veracity of these alleged accounts has long been left as an unresolved question. Matthew P. Robertson, research fellow with the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation (VOC) and a PhD candidate in political science at the Australian National University, is engaged in an effort to direct an analytically rigorous approach towards this controversial topic—which has long been a marginalized issue in diplomatic and human rights discourses connected to the PRC. Mr. Robertson is the author of a detailed report on the topic published in March 2020 by VOC, available here.

编者:多年来,关于中共国境内非自愿摘取器官的故事一直在流传。然而,由于难以证实这些说法--或许由于这些说法的诡异和令人不安,它的真实性长期以来一直是个悬而未决的问题。马修.罗伯逊(Matthew P. Robertson)是共产主义受害者纪念基金会(VOC)的研究员,也是澳大利亚国立大学政治学博士生,他正努力对这一有争议的话题进行严格的分析,这个话题一直是中共国外交和人权讨论中长期以来被边缘化的问题。罗伯逊先生是VOC于2020年3月出版的一份与此有关的详细报告的作者,可在此查阅

Our previous issue contained the first part of this series (Examining China’s Organ Transplantation System: The Nexus of Security, Medicine, and Predation / Part 1: The Growth of China’s Transplantation System Since 2000), which detailed the development and expansion of China’s policy architecture and medical infrastructure for organ transplants over the past two decades. In this article, the second part of a planned three-part series in China Brief, Mr. Robertson examines the available evidence as to whether prisoners of conscience and targeted ethnic minorities in the PRC have been made subject to extrajudicial killing as part of this system of organ harvesting and transplantation.

我们的上一期包含本系列文章的第一部分(《调查中共国的器官移植机制:安全、医学与掠夺的纽带 / 第一部分:2000年以来中共国器官移植体系的增长》,其中详细介绍了过去20年中共国器官移植的政策框架和医疗基础设施的发展和扩张。在这篇文章中,(计划在《中国简报》出一个系列,共三部分,这是第二部分),罗伯逊先生将分析现有的证据,探讨中共国的良心犯和少数族裔是否在器官摘取和移植机制中被作为法外处决的对象。

The third and final part, to appear in a near-future issue, will examine the ways that PRC authorities have sought to leverage influence over international medical organizations in order to manage the narratives surrounding this issue.

第三部分,也是最后一部分,将在不久的一期中出现,将探讨中共国当局如何利用对国际医疗组织的影响来管理事关这一问题的说法。

Introduction

引言

Part 1 of this series profiled the dramatic growth of the organ transplantation infrastructure in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) since the year 2000, and also detailed the difficulty in plausibly explaining the sourcing of organs on a scale that could support such a large system. The discrepancies between the observed growth of China’s transplant sector, and official explanations regarding the organ supply necessary to support a system of such scale, have raised significant questions as to the source of these organs. These discrepancies lead to the need for an alternate explanation, and into this breach a range of theories have been proposed: to include rogue doctors operating organ trafficking gangs (Associated Press, March 15, 2018), and voluntary sales of kidneys for iPads and other consumer electronics (BBC, April 6, 2012).

本系列报告的第一部分介绍了2000年以来中共国器官移植基础设施急剧增长的情况,并详细介绍了一直以来难以合理解释的能够支持如此大规模器官移植机制的器官来源。观察到的中共国移植机构规模的增长与支持如此规模所需的器官供应的官方解释之间存在差异,这引起了对这些器官来源的重大疑问。这些差异需要另外一个解释。对于这一矛盾,人们提出了一系列的理论:包括进行器官贩卖的医生犯罪团伙(美联社,2018年3月15日),以及为了购买iPad和其他消费类电子产品自愿出售肾脏(BBC,2012年4月6日)。

Reaching a judgment as to the source of this large supply of human organs requires evaluating competing hypotheses and making a judgement as to which is the most plausible. One of the most plausible—and disturbing—explanations is that prisoners of conscience in the PRC have been medically tested on a systematic basis while incarcerated, and subsequently executed in order to harvest organs that can be monetized for substantial profits by Chinese Communist Party (CCP) officials (China Tribunal, March 1). Incarcerated persons represent the only population that can plausibly explain the sourcing of healthy organs on the scale observed in China’s transplant sector: these persons are held in captivity; pre-screened for organ function, health, blood-type, and (for kidney transplants) tissue-type; and they are available to be executed on demand. Furthermore, the generally higher state of health found among prisoners of conscience may make them more desirable as an organ source, as compared to regular criminal inmates—who are more likely to be affected by health issues such as drug abuse. When examining possible captive populations, prisoners of conscience are among the most numerous, suitable, and vulnerable.

要对这些人体器官供应的来源的解释做出判断,需要对各种假说进行评估并判断哪个最合理。其中最合理,也是最令人不安的解释是,中共的良心犯在监禁期间系统地进行了医学检验,随后陆续被处决,其目的是为了摘取明码标价可以为中共官员获取大量利润的器官(中国法庭,3月1日)。被监禁的人是唯一可以合理解释中国器官移植行业规模化采购健康器官的人群:这些被关押在监狱里的人,经过器官功能、健康状况、血型和(对于肾脏移植)组织类型的提前检验,就预备着按要求随时被处决。此外,良心犯的健康状况普遍较好,与普通刑事犯相比,可能更适合作为器官来源,因为刑事犯更容易受到健康问题如吸毒的影响。在调查有可能被摘除器官的人群时,良心犯是最多、最合适、最容易被选中的人群之一。

Analysis of PRC transplant data, as well as admissions by officials, suggests that tens of thousands of transplants take place in China annually (VOC Appendix 4, March 10). Death row prisoners are only estimated to number a few thousand, and only a portion of them would make suitable donors. The size of the voluntary donation system at present is unclear, but the systematic falsification of data (see discussion further below) suggests that it must be much smaller than claimed—meaning that there is still a gap in transplant volume that has not been explained.

对中共国移植数据的分析,以及官方的收监情况表明,中共国每年有数以万计的移植案例(VOC附录4,3月10日)。据估计,死囚人数只有几千人,其中只有一部分人适合捐献。目前,自愿捐献系统的规模还不清楚,但系统性的数据造假(见下文讨论)表明,其规模肯定比宣称的要小得多,也就是说,移植量仍有缺口,而这个缺口还没有得到解释。

Prison Populations That Could be Exploited as Organ Sources

可能被用作器官来源的监狱人口

The allegation that organs have been harvested from prisoners of conscience first emerged in 2006 from diaspora practitioners of Falun Gong, an indigenous Chinese spiritual practice suppressed by the PRC authorities since 1999. Prior to the emergence of the Falun Gong allegations in 2006, there was no legislation (or official regulations) regarding organ transplantation in the PRC; however, the first public interim guidelines on the issue were announced two weeks after the Falun Gong claims in March of that year (Ministry of Health, March 14, 2006). The year 2006 was also significant in terms of official narratives: PRC officials initially denied that death row prisoners were used as a source for organs, then in April 2006 revised this claim to state that such prisoners were in fact a source (see Part Oneof this series).

关于从良心犯身上摘取器官的指控最早出现在2006年,是散居国外的法轮功修炼者提出的,法轮功是中国本土的一种精神修行方式,自1999年以来被中共当局镇压。在2006年法轮功指控出现之前,中共国还没有关于器官移植的法律(或官方规定);然而,在法轮功指控出现两周后,中国官方在2006年3月公布了第一份关于器官移植的临时性指南(卫生部,2006年3月14日)。2006年是官方对移植器官的论述的重要一年:中共官员最初否认死囚被用作器官来源,然后在2006年4月修改了这一说法,称这些囚犯实际上是器官来源(见本系列第一部分)。

The allegation that prisoners of conscience are exploited for their organs is composed of many parts of evidence—many of which, although not all, are connected to practitioners of Falun Gong. [1] The most salient include the following:

良心犯被剥削器官的指控由许多证据组成,其中很多(虽然不是全部证据)都与法轮功学员有关。[1] 最突出的证据包括以下几点:

Falun Gong detainees have reported being made subject to unusual blood tests, chest X-rays, and ultrasounds of abdominal organs while in custody; some refugees have reported that only Falun Gong detainees were called out by guards for such physical exams and blood tests, without explanation. Subsequent to this testing, these prisoners began disappearing.

1.据报告,被拘留的法轮功学员在被拘留期间被要求接受不寻常的验血、胸部X光和腹部器官超声波检查;一些难民报告说,只有被拘留的法轮功学员被看守叫出来接受这种无任何解释的体检和验血。在这种检查之后,这些被拘留者开始失踪。

There is an extensive catalogue of telephone calls made to Chinese transplant hospitals by investigators outside China posing as potential patients, relatives of patients, and doctors. These investigators have elicited admissions from nurses and doctors that organs are available on demand. In a number of these calls, hospital personnel have stated that the organs come from practitioners of Falun Gong. [2]

2.在中国境外的调查人员冒充潜在的病人、病人亲属或医生给中共国移植医院打了大量的电话。这些调查人员从护士和医生那里套出护士和医生承认可以按要求提供器官。在这些电话中,医院人员多次表示,器官来自法轮功学员。[2]

China’s transplantation sector began its rapid transformation (in 2000) approximately six months after the campaign against Falun Gong began (in 1999), at a time when China’s death-row prison population was going into decline.

3.中共国的器官移植在反法轮功运动开始大约半年后(2000年)开始快速转型(1999年),当时正值中国死囚人数走向衰落。

Many cases have been documented of summary cremations of young, healthy Falun Gong detainees who die mysteriously in custody. No information is provided to the family, who receive an urn of ashes.

4.有很多案例表明,有很多年轻、健康的法轮功学员在关押期间神秘死亡,被即刻火化。但并没有向家属提供任何信息,家属收到的是骨灰盒。

Cases have also been documented of family members of deceased detainees seeing the bodies with scars consistent with organ removal. In one case in Chongqing, the police admitted that the organs were removed immediately after death, but claimed that this was done in order to take medical specimens.

5. 也有案例显示,死亡的被拘留者家属看到尸体上有切除器官的伤痕。在重庆的一起案件中,警方承认拘留者在死后立即被摘除了器官,但他们声称这样做是为了采集医疗标本。

The Overlap Between Medical and “Anti-Cult” Officials

医学界与 「反邪教 」官员身份重叠

In addition to the list above, a further salient point of evidence is found in the overlap between medical personnel performing transplants, and the CCP cadres carrying out the ongoing anti–Falun Gong campaign. One prominent example of this overlap is found in the case of Dr. Zheng Shusen (郑树森), a leading liver surgeon and vice-president of the China Medical Association. Until 2017, Dr. Zheng was also chairman of the Zhejiang Provincial Anti-Cult Association, a party-led body established to pursue the CCP’s campaign of repression against Falun Gong and other religious organizations proscribed by the state. In the preface to a 2009 internal circulation anti-Falun Gong book, Dr. Zheng (in his security role) described Falun Gong as an “evil religion,” a “virus,” and a “cancer.” [3] In recent years Dr. Zheng co-founded a private hospital with his wife (a leading health official in Zhejiang), which offers organ transplantation as a therapy (Zhejiang News, May 13, 2017). The couple advertises a specialty in short-notice, emergency organ transplants (Sina, December 20, 2017).

除了上面所列举的之外,还有一个突出的证据是,进行移植手术的医务人员与正在进行反法轮功的中共干部之间身份重叠。在中国医学会肝脏外科大夫、中国医师协会副会长郑树森的案例中,就是一个突出的例子。直到2017年,郑树森医生还担任浙江省反邪教协会会长,该协会是党领导的机构,其成立的目的是为了开展中共对法轮功和其他被国家取缔的宗教组织的镇压。在2009年内部流传的反法轮功书籍的序言中,郑医生(以安全角色)将法轮功描述为 "邪恶的宗教"、"病毒 "和 "癌症"。[3] 近年来,郑医生与妻子(浙江卫生厅领导干部)共同创办了一家民营医院,提供器官移植治疗(2017年5月13日《浙江新闻》)。他们夫妻俩在短期、紧急的器官移植的专业期刊上做广告(2017年12月20日新浪网)。

The Suspicious Nature of the PRC’s Official Data on Organ Donations

中共国官方公布的器官捐献数据的可疑性

As discussed in Part 1 of this series, the PRC’s official narratives regarding the sourcing of transplant organs have shifted in an inconsistent and evasive manner over time. Furthermore, official PRC statistics are implausible: forensic statistical analysis of China’s organ donor registry data (performed by the present author, in collaboration with a statistician and a cardiac transplant surgeon) indicates that the country’s medical authorities have falsified the data associated with their voluntary donor system. This finding, which was published in a leading medical ethics journal late last year, found that China’s official donor datasets conform at a 99.9% level to a quadratic equation. China’s figures are thus between one and two orders of magnitude smoother than comparable transplant data from any other country, even those whose transplant systems have grown at a rapid pace (BMC Medical Ethics, November 14, 2019).

正如本系列的第一部分所讨论的那样,中共国官方关于移植器官来源的说法,随着时间的推移,前后不一致,而且是以一种回避的方式进行的。此外,中共国官方的统计数字也令人难以置信:中国器官捐献者登记数据的法医统计分析(由本人与一名统计学家和一名心脏移植外科医生合作完成)表明,中共国的医疗机构伪造了自愿捐献者系统相关的数据。这一发现发表在去年年底的权威医学伦理学杂志上,发现中共国官方的捐献者数据集在99.9%的水平上符合二次方程。因此,中共国的数据图形比其他任何国家的数据都要平滑一到两个数量级,即使是与那些移植机制发展迅速的国家相比也是如此(BMC医学伦理杂志,2019年11月14日)

A range of subsequent statistical findings bolstered this initial discovery (including a significant simplification of the initial model when the PRC published more data). This further corroborated our argument that the data was in fact generated in accordance with a simple model, rather than from actual transplant activity. A range of other qualitative findings cast further doubt on the integrity of the data, including a range of implausible and impossible anomalies in China’s Red Cross figures (such as a claim of 21.3 organs per donor for a two week period in 2016). Provincial Red Cross offices appear to have been involved in the scheme: we conducted five detailed provincial case studies that found implausible leaps in reported donations (such as simple doublings, erratic organ/donor rates, and more), and mismatches between transplants and transplant capacity as reported by hospitals and the respective provincial Red Cross offices.

随后的一系列统计学研究结果支持了这一初步发现(包括中共国公布更多数据时,对最初的模型进行了显著简化)。这进一步证实了我们的论点,即数据实际上是根据一个简单的模型产生的,而不是来自实际的移植。一系列其他的定性发现进一步怀疑了数据的完整性,包括中共国红十字会的数据中出现了一系列难以置信和不可能出现的反常现象(如2016年两周内每个捐献者的器官数量为21.3个)。省级红十字会办公室似乎也参与了这一计划:我们进行了5个详细的省级案例研究,发现报告的捐献量出现了令人难以置信的飞跃(如简单的双倍,器官/供体率不稳定,以及更多),医院和各省级红十字会办公室报告的移植量和移植能力不匹配。

In a review of the paper, Sir David Spiegelhalter, former president of the Royal Statistical Society and professor at the University of Cambridge, noted that “the anomalies in the data… follow a systematic and surprising pattern,” and that “the close agreement of the numbers of donors and transplants with a quadratic function is remarkable, and is in sharp contrast to other countries who have increased their activity over this period… I cannot think of any good reason for such a quadratic trend arising naturally” (Spiegelhalter, March 19, 2019).

英国皇家统计学会前主席、剑桥大学教授David Spiegelhalter爵士在评论该论文时指出,"数据中的异常现象...遵循着一种系统性的、令人惊讶的模式","捐献者和移植者的数量与四倍函数的密切吻合是非常显著的,与其他国家在这一时期内增加的移植量形成鲜明对比...我想不出有什么好的理由可以让这种四倍函数的趋势自然产生"(Spiegelhalter,2019年3月19日)。

Questions Surrounding the Incarceration and Exploitation of Uyghur Detainees

关于监禁和剥削维吾尔族被拘留者的问题

The current mass internment of Uyghur Muslims (China Brief, May 15, 2018; China Brief, November 5, 2018) has also led to questions about the vulnerability of this population to execution and organ harvesting. As compared to the Falun Gong allegations, a similar constellation of evidence exists in the case of Uyghur Muslim prisoners of conscience, though it is not yet as fully developed. In this case, too, Uyghurs have reportedly been subjected to systematic and coercive blood and DNA tests. Former detainees report forced medical examinations of the health and functioning of thoracic and abdominal organs. There are also many instances of disappearances of Uyghurs in custody. [4] Multiple reports and leaked video footage indicate secret transfers of Uyghur detainees on rail to different parts of China (see image below)—which does not, in itself, prove that these persons are being exploited for organ harvesting, but does demonstrate extrajudicial and unaccountable state control over this vulnerable population.

目前对维吾尔族穆斯林的大规模关押(《中国简报》2018年5月15日;《中国简报》2018年11月5日),也让人们对这类人群容易被处决和活摘器官的问题产生了质疑。与法轮功指控相比,在维吾尔族穆斯林良心犯案件中也存在着类似的证据,尽管还没有那么充分。在此案例中,维吾尔族人据说也受到了系统的、胁迫性的血液和DNA检测。早前被拘留者报告说,他们被强迫对胸部和腹部器官的健康和功能进行体检。还有多宗维吾尔族在押人员失踪的事件。[4] 多份报告和被泄露的录像资料显示,被拘留的维吾尔族人在铁路上被秘密转移到中国不同地区(见下图)----这本身并不能证明这些人被利用来摘取器官,但确实表明中共当局对这一弱势群体的法外和不负责任的控制。

The fact that religiously observant Muslims are more likely to abstain from drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco may make them—similar to members of Falun Gong, underground churches, and other religious groups—potentially more desirable as an organ source, as compared to regular criminal inmates who are often more affected by drug abuse and other health issues. If Uyghur detainees are indeed being targeted in this fashion, it would be another instance of the CCP “learning” lessons from its two decades-old campaign against Falun Gong (China Brief, February 1, 2019).

信仰宗教的穆斯林更有可能不饮酒和不吸烟,这一事实可能使他们(类似于法轮功、地下教会和其他宗教团体的成员)有可能成为器官来源,而普通的罪犯往往更容易受到药物滥用和其他健康问题的影响。如果维吾尔族被拘留者确实是以这种方式成为目标的话,这将是中共从其二十年来的反法轮功中 "吸取 "经验的又一个例子(《中国简报》,2019年2月1日)。

Images: Uyghur prisoners, bound and blindfolded, are moved from a detention facility in Kashgar (Xinjiang) to other, unknown facilities (October 2019). The mass arrest of ethnic Uyghurs provides another population of incarcerated persons potentially vulnerable to state predation. (Radio Free Asia/YouTube)

图:维吾尔族囚犯被捆绑着、蒙着眼睛,从喀什(新疆)的一个拘留所转移到其他不知名的场地(2019年10月)。维吾尔族人的大规模被捕,使其成为另一个可能遭受国家掠夺的被监禁人群。(自由亚洲电台/YouTube)

While it may be difficult at present to arrive with absolute certainty at a conclusion as to the truth of these allegations, in a recent report for the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation we addressed this question with a straightforward argument: that extrajudicial execution and organ sourcing from prisoners of conscience is the most plausible explanation for the majority of China’s transplant activity since 2000 (VOC, March 10). If PRC officials have an alternate and more compelling explanation, they should present it, rather than obfuscating the issue with falsified data.

虽然目前可能很难对这些指控的真实性得出绝对肯定的结论,但最近为共产主义受害者纪念基金会撰写的一份报告中,我们用一个直截了当的论点来解决这个问题:法外处决和从良心犯身上摘取器官是2000年以来中共国大部分移植的最合理解释(VOC,3月10日)。如果中共国官员有其他更有说服力的解释,他们应该提出来,而不是用伪造的数据来掩盖这个问题。

Within the organ transplantation system that has developed over the past two decades, the CCP thus promotes its objective of cleansing the social body of groups thought to pollute it—while CCP members are enabled to reap personal profits as they carry out the task. As this takes place, Beijing leverages key relationships it has cultivated with international medical elites in order to win praise for its transplant reforms. This latter issue will be the subject of the third and final article in this series.

在过去20多年来发展起来的器官移植机制中,中共就这样推动了其“清洗社会被污染组织”的目标,而中共党员在执行任务的过程中获得了个人利益。在此过程中,北京利用其与国际医疗精英建立的关键关系,以赢得移植改革的赞誉。后一个问题将是本系列的第三篇也是最后一篇文章的主题。

Matthew P. Robertson is a research fellow in the China Program at the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation and a doctoral student in political science at the Australian National University. His dissertation research examines the political logic of state control over and exploitation of the bodies of Chinese citizens, with a focus on the case of the organ transplantation industry.

马修.罗伯逊是共产主义受害者纪念基金会中国项目研究员,也是澳大利亚国立大学政治学博士生。他的学位论文研究探讨了国家对中共国公民身体的控制和剥削的政治逻辑,重点在于器官移植行业的案例。

Notes

[1] The evidence in this section is adapted from the author’s previous work in: Organ Procurement and Extrajudicial Execution in China: A Review of the Evidence (Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, March 2020), pp. 35-36. This document also contains a list of supporting references.https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5aa6d4759772aebd11e6fe04/t/5e628619cf65b0241d5b0020/1583515189395/Organ+Procurement+and+Extrajudicial+Execution+in+China_VOC+2020.pdf.

[2] For a full discussion of these telephone calls, including the means by which they were verified and evaluated, see: Matthew P. Robertson, “Authentication and Analysis of Purported Undercover Telephone Calls Made to Hospitals in China on the Topic of Organ Trafficking,” China Studies Working Paper 1/2020 (Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, Feb. 11, 2020). https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=3536155.

[3] Zheng Shusen et al eds., Selected Academic Papers on Evil Religion Prevention Research in the New Era (新时期邪教防治研究学术论文精选, Xinshiqi Xiejiao Fangzhi Yanjiu Xueshu Lunwen Jingxuan) (Zhejiang Anti-Cult Association / Science and Technology Press, 2009).

[4] Sources and details are treated in Robertson, Organ Procurement and Extrajudicial Execution in China: A Review of the Evidence, pp. 36-40.

编辑:【喜马拉雅战鹰团】