Human Reproduction and Gestation SAP5. Students will analyze the role of the reproductive system as it pertains to the growth and development of humans.

By: Victoria Berry

Female Reproduction

  • Where does fertilization occur and how long does the egg live for: Fertilization occurs at the moment that the genetic material of sperm combines with that of an ovum to form a fertilized egg. The egg lives for 12 to 24 hours.
  • Role of the fimbriae: The distal end of each uterine tube expands as the funnel shaped, infundibulum, which has fingerlike projections called fimbriae that partially surrounds the ovary. When an oocyte is expelled from an ovary during ovulation the waving fimbriae creates fluid currents that act to carry the oocyte into the uterine, where it begins its journey through the uterus.
  • The role of cilia in fallopian tube/uterine tube: The oocyte is carried toward the uterus by a combination of peristalsis and the rhythmic beating of cilia. Cilia are very small hairlike organelles.
  • Uterus and Size changes: The uterus is located in the pelvis between the urinary bladder and the reactum. It is a hollow organ that functions to receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized egg. For those who are not pregnant, the uterus is about the size of a pear. However, for those who are pregnant, the uterus' size increases tremendously in size.
  • Where implantation occurs: If fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg burrows into the endometrium, this process is also known as implantation, and that is where it resides for the rest of its development.
  • The difference between an "egg" and a oocyte: Ovum, another name for "eggs", it is mature egg that has undergone reduction and is ready for fertilization. An oocyte is a immature egg that is not ready for fertilization.
  • Explain how polar bodies and ovum are formed and the future of each: The first meiotic division produces two cells that are dissimilar in size. The large cell is the secondary oocyte, and the very tiny cell is a polar body. If the ovulated secondary oocyte is penetrated by a sperm in one of the uterine tubes, the oocyte undergoes the second meiotic division that produces another polar body and the ovum. After the ovum is formed, its 23 chromosomes are combined with those of sperm to develop the fertilized egg, which is the first cell of the yet to be offspring.
  • The roles of FSH and LH: Follicle Stimulating Hormone is a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that promotes the formation of the ova or sperm.
  • Luteinizing Hormone is a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates ovulation in female and synthesis of androgen in males.
  • Ovarian cycle: reproduction age range of a female, # of oocytes that are released in the lifetime of ovulation: The reproduction age of a female is from 15-49. By the time a women has reached puberty, she has had at least 300,000 eggs; however, only 300-400 ovulate.
  • Explanation of secondary sex characteristics: Visible characteristics are enlarged breast, and increased pubic hair.
  • Menstrual cycle: Ovulation usually occurs 12 to 14 days before your period starts, but this is the average time, it could be a few days earlier or later. Menstrual cycle is the process of ovulation and menstruation in women and other female primates. The menstrual cycle is regulated by hormones. Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, which are produced by the pituitary gland, promote ovulation and stimulate the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone.
  • Homeostatic balances: Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, play a role in causing most cervical cancer. Breast cancer occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get it, too. The tumor is malignant (cancerous) if the cells can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. Endometriosis a condition resulting from the appearance of endometrial tissue outside the uterus and causing pelvic pain. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is inflammation of the female genital tract, accompanied by fever and lower abdominal pain.

Male Reproduction

  • Where sperm is made: Sperm is made in the seminiferous tubules.
  • The length of the sperm, time it takes to go through, & what sperm learn to do in the epididymis: The sperm is about 6 meters long, and takes 20 days to go through. In the epididymis, the sperm learns how to swim.
  • Ductus deferens/ vas deferens: vasectomy: It is a tube that runs along with blood vessels and nerves. Spermatic cord is a connective tissue that runs through the Inguinal canal. The ductus deferens then goes over the ureter, and descends on the posterior wall. It expands to the Ampulla. It then empties into the ejaculatory duct, which then passes through the Prostate gland to merge with the Urethra. A vasectomy is a type of birth control that you get when your ductus deferens get ligated.
  • Urethra: The Urethra carries both sperm and urine. Urine and sperm do not mix because of the bladder sphincter constricts.
  • Seminal vesicles: The Seminal Vesicles secrete seminal fluid. The ingredients are sugar, vitamin C, Prostaglandins, and other substances. The importance of the secretion is so sperm can enter the Urethra during ejaculation.
  • Prostate gland: The Prostate gland secretes a milky fluid, and it activates the sperm.
  • Bulbourethral gland: The Bulbourethral gland secretes thick, clear mucus. Its purpose is to cleanse the Urethra, and serve as a lubricant during sexual intercourse.
  • Semen facts: Semen is a sticky mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions. It also contains fructose in the seminal vesicle that provides all the energy fuel, and also sometimes under acidic conditions. Semen contains seminalplasim, a chemical that kills certain bacteria. The amount of bacteria that comes out of a male duct is 2 to 5 milliliters.
  • Explanation of secondary sex characteristics: The secondary sex characteristics involves a deep voice, increase hair growth, enlargement of skeletal muscles and bone growth. Testosterone is responsible for these characteristics.
  • Male infertility reasons and environmental reasons for sperm formation: Male infertility is caused by obstructions of the duct system. Environmental reasons are estrogens, pesticides, excessive alcohol, and other factors.
  • Homeostatic imbalances: Sexual Infantilism is when Testosterone is not being produced, and the result is that the male’s organs remain childlike. Prostate cancer is cancer in the Prostate. Prostatitis occurs when the Prostate gland swells up.

Pregnancy and embryonic development

  • Fertilization: After the egg is released, it moves into the fallopian tube. It stays there for about 24 hours, waiting for a single sperm to fertilize it. All this happens, on average, about 2 weeks after your last period. The sperm then begin their long journey towards the egg. Leaving the cervix they enter the womb. Here, they swim towards the Fallopian tubes. Zygote is a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum.
  • Embryonic Development: Cleavage is a rapid series of mitotic division that begins with the zygote, and ends with the blastocyst, a ball-like structure. Embryo is the development stage until the 9th week. HCG is a LH-like hormone that continues to produce hormones in the ovary. Placenta is the tissue of the mother’s uterus. A fluid-filled sac around the embryonic body is amnion. The blood-vessel containing stalk of tissue is the umbilical cord. The fetus is what the embryo is referred to on the 9th week of development. The weight and size of the fetus is 3 cm and weighs 1 gram; however at birth, the baby can be 55 cm and weigh 6 to 10 pounds.
  • Effects on the mother: Anatomical is when the center of gravity changes because of the bulkiness of the abdomen. Heartburns happen because our esophagus and stomach are being pushed, and the stomach acid goes into your esophagus. Morning sickness is caused by elevated levels of progesterone and estrogen. Relaxin makes the pelvic, pubic symphysis, gets wider to get ready for childbirth. Dyspnea occurs later during the pregnancy, and makes it difficult to breath. Your blood pressure rise from 20 to 40 percent, and more blood has to be made for the mother and fetus.

Childbirth

  • Braxton Hick contractions: Braxton Hicks contractions are intermittent weak contractions of the uterus during pregnancy.
  • Oxytocin levels: Oxytocin is often known as the “hormone of love” because it is involved with love-making fertility, contractions during labor and birth, and the release of milk in breastfeeding.
  • Movement of fetus: Movements of the fetus are things such as kicking, rolling, and wiggling. When the baby comes out, it comes out head first.
  • Aspirin & Ibuprofen: Doctors suggest Aspirin and Ibuprofen to pregnant women because it lowers the risks of certain complications.
  • When gender is determined & what is indifferent stage: During your 16-20 week pregnancy mark is when you find out the gender of the baby. The indifferent stage is the period during embryonic development when the gonads, sex accessory ducts, and external genitalia, or both the sexes are identical. The fetuses start to indifferent after the 2 month mark.
  • Childbirth facts: A full-term pregnancy is between 37-47 weeks; however, if they do not know for certain the call it an EDD. An educated due date. During pregnancy, your metabolism and blood volume increases, making the body sweat more.
  • The 3 stages: There are three of these stages: The dilation stage: this begins when true labor starts. The expulsion stage, which ends in parturition, or the birth of the baby. The placental stage, which, as you may be able to guess, is the expulsion of the placenta from the uterus.
  • Homeostatic Imbalances: Dystocia is difficult birth, typically caused by a large or awkwardly positioned fetus, by smallness of the maternal pelvis, or by failure of the uterus and cervix to contract and expand normally. Pseudohermaphroditism, or pseudo-hermaphroditism, is the condition in which an organism is born with primary sex characteristics of one sex but develops the secondary sex characteristics that are different from what would be expected on the basis of the gonadal tissue (ovary or testis). Cryptochidism a condition in which one or both of the testes fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum. Menopause is the ceasing of menstruation in a woman's life (typically between 45 and 50 years of age) when this occurs.

Credits:

Created with images by PublicDomainPictures - "girl baby belly" • TryJimmy - "new born infant birth"

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