Sonic and Rhythmic Devices, Structure

Accentual Meter

1) A measuring system that depends on a consistent number of accents, regardless of how many unstressed syllables are around them

2) verse whose meter is determined by the number of stressed syllables, regardless of the total number of syllables in each line

Alliteration

1) the repetition of a speech sound in a sequence of nearby words, applied only to consonants and when the recurrent sound begins a word or a stressed syllable within a word

2) a stylistic device in which a number of words, having the same first consonant sound, occur close together in a series

Amphibrach

1) a stressed syllable surrounded by two unstressed syllables

2) a trisyllabic foot that consists of one accented or long syllable between two unaccented or short syllables

Amphimacer

1) a trisyllabic metrical foot having an unaccented or short syllable between two accented or long syllables

2) a three-syllable foot consisting of a heavy, light, and heavy stress; reverse of amphibrach; poetry written in amphimacer is called cretic meter.

anacrusis

1) The addition of an extra unstressed syllable or two at the start of a line of verse–but these additions are not considered part of the regular metrical count

2) a preliminary syllable at the beginning of a line of verse before the normal meter begins

anapest

1) A foot or unit of poetry consisting of two light syllables followed by a single stressed syllable

2) a metrical foot in a line of a poem that contains three syllables wherein the first two syllables are short and unstressed followed by a third syllable that is long and stressed

anisometric

1) Poetic verse that does not have equal or corresponding poetic meters

2) Verse that is unmetered and the lines within strophe are uneven

assonance

1) the repetition of identical or similar vowels in a sequence of nearby words

2) the recurrence of similar vowel sounds in neighbouring words where the consonants do not match

ballad stanza

1) a quatrain in alternate four- and three-stress lines, where usually only the second and fourth lines rhyme

2) A four-line stanza rhyming in the second and fourth lines and having four metrical feet in the first and third lines and three in the second and fourth

blank verse

1) poetry that consists of lines of iambic pentameter (five-stress iambic verse) which are unrhymed

2) type of poetry written in a regular meter that does not contain rhyme

cacophony

1) language which is perceived as harsh, rough, and unmusical to produce an effect of discordancy

2) the use of words with sharp, harsh, hissing and unmelodious sounds primarily those of consonants to achieve desired results

caesura

1) a strong phrasal pause that occurs within a line

2) a rhythmical pause in a poetic line or a sentence

catalexis

1) the omission of an expected offbeat

2) The absence of one or more syllables in a line of verse, especially in the last foot

closed couplet

1) An end-stopped (a grammatical pause at the end of a line of verse), rhymed couplet that contains a complete thought

2) A rhymed couplet forming a complete thought or syntactic unit

common meter

1) A quatrain that rhymes ABAB and alternates four-stress and three-stress iambic lines

2) closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB, in which the lines of iambic tetrameter alternate with lines of iambic trimeter

consonance

1) the repetition of a sequence of two or more consonants, but with a change in the intervening vowel

2) the recurrence of similar consonants in neighbouring words where the vowel sounds do not match

couplet

1) Two lines of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit

2) A literary device that consists of two successive rhyming lines in a verse and has the same meter to form a complete thought

dactyl

1) a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables

2) a metrical foot of three syllables where an accented syllable precedes two unaccented syllables

di-amb

1) a metrical foot which consists of two iambs

2) a metrical foot of four syllables–unaccented, accented, unaccented, accented

di-meter

1) A line of verse composed of two feet

2) Any line of poetry consisting of two metrical feet

doggerel

1) rough, heavy-footed, and jerky versification, and also to verses that are monotonously regular in meter and tritely conventional in sentiment

2) Bad verse traditionally characterized by clichés, clumsiness, and irregular meter

eye rhyme

1) a visual-only rhyme; superficial rhyme where spellings match but pronunciation don’t

2) imperfect rhyme where two words are spelled similarly but pronounced differently

euphony

1) language which strikes the ear as smooth, pleasant, and musical

2) quality of being pleasant to listen to; a harmonious combination of words and sounds

falling meter

1) meter with a strong stress at the beginning, followed by a “fall”, or unstressed syllable

2) poetic meters that move or fall from a stressed to an unstressed syllable; refers to trochees and dactyls

feminine rhyme

1) a rhyme involving two syllables; also known as “double rhyme”

2) rhyme that consists of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable

form

1) structure of a piece of writing, how it is organized

2) structure of a poem, determined by the length of lines, their rhythms, their

free verse

1) type of poetry that does not contain patterns of rhyme or meter

2) poems that have no set meter, rhyme scheme, or particular structure

heptameter

1) A meter made up of seven feet and usually 14 syllables total

2) a verse of seven metrical feet

heroic couplet

1) a pair of rhymed lines with iambic pentameter

2) a rhymed couplet that is usually end-stopped and in iambic pentameter

hexameter

1) a line of poetry consisting of six feet

2) A metrical line of six feet, most often dactylic

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