The Syrian Civil War BY: Julianna Messina

What is this War?

The Syrian Civil War was an armed conflict that took place in Syria. Syrian opposition groups formed the Free Syrian Army (FSA) and seized control of the area surrounding Aleppo and parts of southern Syria

Who's Involved?

The first shots of the war were shot on March 2011 by the Syrian dictator Bashar Al Assad. In July, some Syrian protesters start shooting back, and a group who calls themselves the Free Syrian army defect from assads are to join them.

“After several months, the protests evolved into an armed rebellion, and then into a full-fledged civil war.”

In 2012, this is when extremists from Syria and around the region come to join the rebels.

By 2015 the main groups that were involved was Assad, (who was backed by Hezbolla, Iran and Russia) Isis, Kurds ( who were partially backed by the US), and the rebels (who were backed by the gulf states, Jordan and Turkey).

"Each side has different foreign backer and those foreign backers don't even agree with one another about who they are fighting for or who they are fighting against."

What is the history of this conflict?

Timeline of Events
  • The first shots of the war were shot on March 2011 by the Syrian dictator Bashal Al Assad
  • In 2012 some syrian troops defect from assads army and the uprising becomes a civil war
  • Assad releases jihadists to tinge the rebellion with the rebels
  • Summer of 2012 is when Syria became a proxy war
  • By the end of 2012 Iran (Assads most important alli) starts intervene and support assad, while states along the golf are sending money and weapons to the rebels
  • In return, in mid 2012, Hezbollah (backed by Iran) invades to fight alongside Assad
  • In respond, the golf states send even more money and weapons to the rebels.
  • By 2013 the Sunni powers were on one side supporting the rebels and the Shia on the other side supporting Assad.
  • April 2013, Obama Administration authorizes the CIA to train and equip Syrian rebels
  • That August Assad uses chemical weapons against civilians
  • Weeks later the first american training arms through the CIA reach Syrian rebels, making the US a participant in the war.
  • Al-Queda leaves its group from a disagreement over Syria. That group then calls themselves the Islamic state of Iraq and Syria and becomes Al Qeada's enemy
  • Isis then doesn't fight Assad, instead it fights the other rebels and the Kurds, then marching across Iraq seizing territory and turning the world against it
  • Then in September, President Obama orders the pentagon to launce a program to train Syrian rebels, only ones who fight Isis, showing that we were more against Isis than Assad
  • In August, Kurdish groups start to be bombed by Turkey, not bombing Isis
  • In September 2015, Russia interveins, saying that they are there to bomb Isis but ends up bombing the anti-Assad rebels

Causes of the Conflicts

The major event that caused the war to start to be violence was the first shots that were shot by Assad against peaceful dictators. Initially, the lack of freedom and money issues added to the resentment toward the government.

A drought due to a change in climate conditions cause 1.5 million people to travel from the countryside into the cities which led those people to poverty and rebellion.

Also a wave of people against the syrian government and revolutions made its way through the Middle East and North Africa, causing Assad to respond violently, killing and imprisoning hundreds of demonstrators.

Effects of the Conflicts

The biggest effect that results from the war is the amount of death, some deaths of civilians and some from the groups that participated in the conflicts.

“Staggering 470,000 deaths have been caused by the conflict, either directly or indirectly.”

“A further 6.5 million people are internally displaced inside Syria, 1.2 million were driven from their homes in 2015 alone.”

Another effect of the conflict, is the Syrian government responding to the protesters by launching more that 100 attacks on the rebels


Syrian Civil Unrest-

Syria’s Civil War Explained-

Syria's War Who's Fighting and Why?-



Loomer, Laura. “After a Very Bloody Six-Year-Long Civil War, Vladimir Putin Announced on Thursday That Assad’s Syrian Government and the Opposition Rebels Have Agreed to Terms for a Ceasefire Deal and Peace Talks Proposed by Russia and Turkey.” Gellar Report , 29 Dec. 2016,

Arab, The New. “ The New Arab.” العربي الجديد, The New Arab, 14 Apr. 2017, Accessed 14 Apr. 2017.

L'OBSrue89, Le Nouvel Observateur, 21 Aug. 2013,

Syria's Civil War Explained.” Newsela | School, Newsela, Accessed 14 Apr. 2017

Syria's War:Who Is Fighting and Why? Vox, 14 Oct. 2015,

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