Institutions By rory mcnamee

Production Companies

Production companies are essentially responsible for creating the film. Production values include: developing the narrative, story, plot and script, selecting the director, allocating a budget, casting and filming. Production companies are widely regarded as the most important institution in filmmaking as without them there would be no text for the distribution companies to distribute. Examples of big production companies are Warner Bros. and Universal Pictures, who have produced some of the highest grossing movies of all time - The Dark Knight (2008) and Jurassic World (2015) reaching a total gross profit of $533 million and $652 million respectively.

Box Office records by studio:

Universal - http://www.boxofficemojo.com/studio/chart/?studio=universal.htm

Warner Bros - http://www.boxofficemojo.com/studio/chart/?studio=warnerbros.htm

Which Production Company and Why?

For our production we have decided on using a production company that AJ and Sean had come up with previously and designed the logo for 'Dark Cloud Productions'. Initially we thought 'Dark Cloud Productions' to be conforming to the horror genre and representative of our film. Having done more research into production companies now, we still believe our company to be appropriate and well suited for our piece as it is major/minor and has a very limited budget. We feel as though a major/minor is best suited for our text as they specialise in films that conform to the conventions of mainstream & commercial as well as independent films. Our text features a number of conventions that are split evenly over these two very different categories and so for that reason we fell that a major/minor production company such as Dark Cloud Productions suits our text best.

Distribution Companies

Distribution companies are responsible for promotion and distribution of the film. This includes managing the finances of the production during construction and any editing done in post-production. Production companies will pitch their idea of a film to the distribution companies and decide upon their target audience, to maximise profit. Once they find their target demographic, the distribution co. can begin the marketing campaign.

A distribution company's marketing campaign must be successful in order for the film to stand a chance of making them profit, something that is not as simple as it seems as only 1 in 5 films produced in Hollywood make box office. Due to this, distribution companies will advertise their films in magazines, on bus stops, billboards, television ads and recently as technology is advancing they're are even more formats for advertising to be conveyed, QR codes for example.

Which Distribution Company and Why?

After a great deal of research we came across Rogue Pictures and we decided that they would be the perfect distributers for our construction. We chose Rogue Pictures as they are a Major/minor and they distributed Shaun of The Dead a zombie film that our text has been referenced as being similar to many times in our audience research. Because of the success from Edgar Wright's Shaun of The Dead (2004) and it's similarity to our text we feel as though it would be wise to have them as our distributors. They were also owned by the conglomerate Universal before they were sold in 2009 and so as we have a number of conventions of the mainstream market in our text - we feel as though their past experience in this market will prove to be invaluable.

Trailer for Rogue Pictures, Shaun of the Dead (2004): https://youtu.be/LIfcaZ4pC-4

Exhibition

Exhibition is the retail aspect of the film industry. Exhibitions of texts can be done in a plethora of ways: cinema premiere, live streaming, on Television and by a DVD only release. We have decided that we will exhibit our piece using a DVD release as well as streaming on Netflix and Amazon Prime. The reasoning behind this is that our text is appealing to a niche audience who enjoy watching zombie films with a comic undertone, therefore a cinematic release would not suit us as the cinemas would probably not sell out and leave us with the cinema expenses eating into our profit margins. Although we have decided to have a DVD release for additional income, it is clear that our primary source of profit from the movie would be from online streaming - the graphic below from The Guardian illustrates clearly the point that the DVD format is dying, and being replaced by the likes of Netflix and other sites online.

It is also down to cinema screening becoming outdated and online streaming now becoming the archetypal way to watch films in this day and age, especially with young adults and teenagers, who are the age group of our target audience. We considered YouTube as a platform of distribution, viewers could potentially watch the movie for free or very low payment and we would gain profit from Adsense due to having a YouTube partnership and placing advertisements in and around the video (for more information on this, there is a link below). We concluded however that the profit from this alone would not cover the expense of producing the film and that there are better, more lucrative options available.

Adsense information: https://www.google.co.uk/adsense/start/how-it-works/#/

Regulation

The regulations of films in the UK is done by the BBFC, British Board of Film Classification, and regulation of media texts are done in the public's interest to ensure that they are not exposed to inappropriate material. After reading through the guidelines set out by the BBFC we have decided that our film is a 15 as they state:

" Violence may be strong but should not dwell on the infliction of pain or injury. The strongest gory images are unlikely to be acceptable. Strong sadistic violence is also unlikely to be acceptable. There may be detailed verbal references to sexual violence but the depiction of sexual violence must be discreet and justified by context."

We believe this definition to match our piece and after considering a 12A rating to attract a wider demographic, we decided against it, as it outlined 12A "There should be no emphasis on injuries or blood". In our film their will be a large emphasis on blood and injuries due to the conventions of the zombie genre so 15 was a better option, avoiding the brand of 'strong gory images' as it may be deemed unacceptable.

http://www.bbfc.co.uk/what-classification/15

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