Chapter 29: Neural Control By Dominick Pizzonia

Central Nervous System

The central nervous system consists of the spinal chord and the brain. This system receives messages from the nerves in the peripheral nervous system and then the central nervous system sends out a response. The cells that transmit these messages to and from the central nervous system are neurons.

Peripheral Nervous System

The peripheral nervous system includes the nerves that branch off of the brain and the spinal chord. These nerves send messages to the nervous system. When this nervous system sends a signal to the brain or spinal chord, this means that there is a change in the body. Also there are two parts of the peripheral nervous system. They are the autonomic and somatic nervous systems.

Somatic Nervous System

The somatic nervous system involves the voluntary movement performed by the body. Throughout the body there are sensory neurons that send meassges up to the central nervous system from various parts of the body. Then the central nervous system sends out motor neurons to these parts of the body and this is the response.

Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system is another part of the peripheral nervous system. This system includes all of the involuntary movements performed by the body. Some of this involuntary movements include digestion and moving your hand away from a hot object. The autonomic nervous system uses reflexes to react to a situation. Also the autonomic nervous system is divided into the parasympathetic nervous system and the sympathetic nervous system.

Parasympathetic Nervous System

The parasympathetic nervous nervous system is part of the autonomic nervous system. In this system, body functions are slowed down so that energy can be conserved. These body functions are slowed down during times of rest and it includes digestion.

Sympathetic Nervous System

The sympathetic nervous system is the other part of the autonomic nervous system. This nervous system causes your heart rate to increase when a reflex is startled. Also the sympathetic nervous system is involved in maintaining homeostasis. The system is also referred to as "flight or fight response."

Sensory Neuron

Sensory Neurons are one of the three types of neurons. These neurons transmit messages to the central nervous system so the central nervous system can send out a response to the message.


Interneurons are another type of neuron. These neurons are responsible for communicating and connecting with other neurons.

Motor Neuron

Motor neurons are the third type of neurons. These neurons are the ones that are sent from the central nervous system in response to an impulse.

Neuromuscular Junction

Neuromuscular junction enables a muscle to contract. It is when a muscle fiber receivesmessages from a motor neuron. This type of a junction is a synapse. A synapse is a region where neurotransmitters are transferred between two cells.


Acetylcholine is a chemical neurotransmitter that is found in the body's of many animals. This neurotransmitter is released by nerve cells in order to transfer a message to another cell. Also these neurotransmitters are responsible for muscle contraction.

Norepinephrine and Epinephrine

The norepinephrine and epinephrine are hormones that are released form the nervous system. These hormones are released when the body is under stress or excitement. Also it is known as fight or flight.


The synapse is a structure of a neuron that allows a neuron to transfer signals to another neuron. One example of a synapse is a neuromuscular junction. Neuromuscular junction is a synapse between a neuron and a muscle.

White Matter

White Matter is the myelinated axons of the brain which connect cell bodies and allows neurons to transmit messages within each other. These cell bodies are the gray matter.

Gray Matter

Gray Matter is the location of nerve cell bodies in the brain. These cell bodies are coveted by axons, white Matter, and this connection enables the neurons to carry messages within each other.

Cerebral Cortex

The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the brain. This outer layer is gray Matter and it is made up of neural tissue. Also this part of the brain is responsible for the way a person behaves, making choices, concentrating, and planning. The cerebral cortex also is responsible or some voluntary movements and it is divided into four lobes.

Lobes of the Brain

The cerebrum is divided into four lobes that are responsible for complex functions of the body. These four lobes are the frontal, parietal, occipital, and the temporal lobe. The frontal lobe is responsible for motor functions such as memory and language. The parietal lobe is responsible for sensation and perception. The occipital lobe involves visual processing. Also the temporal lobe involves hearing.

Limbic System

The limbic system are structures in the brain that are responsible for expressing emotion. These structures are the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. The emotions center of the brain is the amygdala. Also the hippocampus is where declarative memories are held in the brain.

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