Prokaryotic Cells Biology Mr. hedrick

Prokaryotic cells lack a defined nucleus and have no cell membrane. In this case its genetic material (chromosomes) is dispersed in the cytoplasm. The center of these cells lies a thicker area called the nucleotide.These cells have a smaller structure and are less complex than eukaryotic cells, being able to measure between 0.2 and 2 micrometers in diameter. These cells have a cell wall outside that provides protection from the outside, and can be aerobic (need oxygen to live) or anaerobic (they do not need oxygen to live). Prokaryotic cells are found only in bacteria, unlike eukaryotes, which are present in animals, plants, fungi, etc.
The coccus bacteria are spherical or oval in shape, like a berry. In fact, the name is derived from the Greek word kokkos, which means berry. These are some of the smallest and simplest bacteria, with an average size of about 0.5 to 1.0 micrometers in diameter. (A micrometer is about 1/1,000,000 of a meter.) A number of pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria belong to this category. Some examples of cocci are streptococcus, which can cause strep throat and scarlet fever; staphylococcus, specifically Staphylococcus aureus, which can cause food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome; and meningococcus, which can cause a number of meningococcal diseases, including epidemic bacterial meningitis.
The bacillus bacteria are rod-like in shape. These bacteria are a bit more complex than the coccus family and, on average, are 0.5 to 1.0 microns wide by 1.0 to 4.0 microns long. A number of these bacteria are pathogenic, like Yersinia pestis, which can cause bubonic and pneumonic plague, or Bacillus anthracis, which is the cause of anthrax. But beneficial bacteria also belong to this family, such as those used to make antibiotics as well as those that colonize the human intestinal tract, aiding in digestion
The bacillus bacteria are rod-like in shape. These bacteria are a bit more complex than the coccus family and, on average, are 0.5 to 1.0 microns wide by 1.0 to 4.0 microns long. A number of these bacteria are pathogenic, like Yersinia pestis, which can cause bubonic and pneumonic plague, or Bacillus anthracis, which is the cause of anthrax. But beneficial bacteria also belong to this family, such as those used to make antibiotics as well as those that colonize the human intestinal tract, aiding in digestion
In no part of the human body, but in some microorganisms that we have called bacteria, prokaryotic cells can only be possessed by bacteria, humans, plants, animals, and protozoa we possess eukaryotic cells
In the intestinal tract there is a colony of prokaryotes, the Escherichia coli that forms with the organism that hosts it a specimen of Symbiosis because it feeds on nutrients and in benefit synthesizes vitamin K, in the intestinal tract also inhabits another coloni Prokaryotic cells, Metanogenic bacteria.

The Nucleoid

The nucleoid is an irregularly-shaped region within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material. In contrast to the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, it is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane. The genome of prokaryotic organisms generally is a circular, double-stranded piece of DNA, of which multiple copies may exist at any time. The length of a genome varies widely, but is generally at least a few million base pairs.

Pili: Are structures in the form of hair, shorter and thinner than the flagella found on the surface of many bacteria. The pili correspond to the cytoplasmic membrane through the pores of the cell wall and the capsule that appear to the outside.

Ribosome: The ribosome is a simple molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis.

Food Granule: In cell biology, a granule is a small particle. It can be any structure barely visible by light microscopy.

Prokaryotic Flagellum: A flagellum is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.The primary role of the flagellum is locomotion, but it also often has function as a sensory organelle, being sensitive to chemicals and temperatures outside the cell.

Plasmid (DNA): A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. They are most commonly found in bacteria as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules; however, plasmids are sometimes present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms.

Cytosol: The cytosol or cytoplasmic matrix is the liquid found inside cells. It constitutes most of the intracellular fluid (ICF). It is separated into compartments by membranes. For example, the mitochondrial matrix separates the mitochondrion into many compartments.

Plasma membrane: The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings.

Cell Wall: A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, situated outside the cell membrane. It can be tough, flexible, and sometimes rigid. It provides the cell with both structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism.

Capsule or Slime Layer: The cell capsule is a very large structure of some prokaryotic cells, such as bacterial cells. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell envelope of bacteria, and is thus deemed part of the outer envelope of a bacterial cell. It is a well-organized layer, not easily washed off, and it can be the cause of various diseases.

The difference of the Prokaryotic Cells and Eucaryotic Cells

1.- The main difference has to do with the core. The eukaryotic cell has a nucleus with a nuclear membrane. Within this nucleus are the chromosomes that lead to DNA. Moreover, prokaryotic cells do not possess nucleus, which causes the chromosomes to be scattered in the cytoplasm, and found in a place called nucloid.cells-eukaryotes-and-prokaryotes 2 .- Another difference has to do with the cell walls. On the one hand, prokaryotic cells have a non-cellulosic cell wall that contain pectidoglycans. As for eukaryotic cells it will depend on whether they are plant or animal eukaryotes. The former possess a cell wall composed of cellulose, while animal eukaryotes have no cell wall. 3. Sometimes prokaryotic cells can produce diseases like Tuberculosis (Koch Bacillus), while eukaryotic cells never produce diseases. 4.- Prokaryotic cells are smaller than eukaryotic cells since they usually measure between 0.2 and 2 micrometers in diameter, while the eukaryotes measure from 10 to 100 micrometers in diameter. 5. Prokaryotic cells do not possess membranous cellular organelles, whereas the cucaryotic cells possess them. 6.-. Eukaryotic cells use cell division by Mitosis and Meiosis, while prokaryotic cells use bacterial conjugation for the exchange of genetic information. 7.- Eukaryotic cells are aerobic, this means they need oxygen to live and they breathe through the mesosome. While prokaryotic cells can be aerobic and anaerobic, the latter do not need oxygen. 8.- Eukaryotic cells are present in animals, fungi, plants, algae and protozoa, while prokaryotic cells are present only in bacteria.
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Brandon Gutiérrez
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