Deep Sky Objects Capone


Albert Einstein:

March 14, 1879 - April 18 1955


Albert Einstein was born on March 14th, 1879 in the German city of Ulm. His father Hermann was a salesman and engineer. A year after he was born, his family relocated to Munich where his father and uncle established an electrical equipment manufacturing company. This event in his early life may have set the stage for his interest in science and mathematics. His father would share his engineering knowledge with the young Albert who thrived on learning about how things worked. Albert’s formal education began with him attending catholic schools even though he was of Jewish descent. His family did not actively practice the Jewish faith. Over the years his education was a varied one and he never hid his disdain for organized teaching. He attended several different institutions of learning in a number of locations. Einstein married a woman he had met at the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zurich. The marriage occurred about one year after he fathered a daughter by the woman. There is some mystery as to the fate of the baby. Some believe the girl may have been put up for adoption while others think she may have died after contracting scarlet fever while still an infant. The couple would have two sons before divorcing in 1919 after 16 years of marriage. Einstein would marry his cousin a few months later, after having begun a relationship with her 7 years prior.Besides the theory of relativity, Einstein’s contribution to science is unparalleled in its depth and magnitude. He was responsible for literally hundreds of article and books as well as collaborating with other scientists on numerous occasions. Einstein’s Annus-Mirabilas Papers of 1905 contained material relating to the theory of relativity, E = mc2, Brownian Motion and photoelectric effects. His Theory of Critical Opalescence publication explains, among other things, why the sky is blue. His Modern Quantum Theory was an upgrade to quantum theory and mechanics.

Famous Physicists. (2013). Famous Physicists. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Galileo Galilei:

February 15, 1564 - January 8, 1642


While he was in a service in the cathedral one day, he was distracted by a bronze lamp hanging from the ceiling. He noticed that the lamp was drawn aside so as to light the room better. When it was released, the lamp oscillated back and forward gradually with decreasing amplitude. Galileo used the pulse of his heart to keep the time and was surprised to discover the lamp’s oscillation period was unaffected by the arc’s size of oscillation. He later proved through an experiment that the period taken by a swinging pendulum did not depend on the bob’s weight. He proved that the period is dependent only on the pendulum’s length. The pendulum was what formed his interest in astronomy and science. When he later got the chance to attend a lecture in geometry, this further fueled his interest in astronomy. Galileo then changed from medicine and decided to study science, philosophy, and mathematics. These were subjects in which he believed he possessed a strong natural talent. Galileo’s Career In 1589, Galileo was appointed the mathematics professor at Pisa. In 1591, his father, Vincenzo Galilei, died and as the eldest son, Galileo had to take up the position of the bread winner. Since he was not well paid as the mathematics professor, he looked for a much better post. In 1952, Galileo become the mathematics professor at the University of Padua. He was able to secure a job with a salary that was almost three times more than the one he received at Pisa. He held this position until 1610 and described this period as the happiest time of his life. He focused on a number of experiments, such as the speed of fall of various objects, the pendulum effect, and mechanics. Contributions to Astronomy

Famous Astronomers. (2011). Famous Astronomers. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Urbain Le Verrier:

March 11, 1811 - September 23, 1877


Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier was born in 1811 at Saint-Lô, France. At the age of 26, he was appointed a teacher of astronomy at the Ecole Polytechnic Paris. Immediately after his appointment he began an intensive study of the motion of Mercury. He compiled extensive tables detailing the planet's motion, including its unusual characteristic of a varying perihelion. By 1845 Le Verrier had become interested in the motion of the planet Uranus. Uranus did not have the orbit scientists expected it to have based on their mathematical calculations. Le Verrier set out to determine why. Through mathematical calculations, he predicted the presence of another planet beyond Uranus. The gravitational pull of this planet would explain the unusual motion of Uranus. Le Verrier gave his calculations to astronomer Johann Gottried Galle at the Berlin Observatory. Using Le Verrier's calculations, Galle was able to observe the planet within one hour of starting. Le Verrier expected to be declared the sole discoverer of Neptune, but months prior to his calculations being completed John Couch Adams, an English mathematician, had accomplished the same feat. As a consequence, Le Verrier and Adams share the honor as Neptune's discoverers. In 1854, Le Verrier became director of the Observatory of Paris. At the time, this observatory was in decay. Le Verrier reestablished the observatory as a place where good science was taking place. He often used very tough measures at the observatory. As a consequence, a storm of protest led to his removal as director in 1870. He was reinstated as director in 1873. Urbain Le Verrier died in Paris in 1877.

Starchild. (n.d.). Urbain Le Verrier. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

William Herschel:

November 15, 1738 - August 25, 1822


In 1781, the German-English astronomer William Herschel sent shockwaves through the world of science when he discovered the planet Uranus. Since humans began observing the stars, the general consensus was that there were only five other planets in addition to the earth orbiting our sun. That there could be sixth planet in the heavens was almost unthinkable.

Famous Astronomers. (2011). Famous Astronomers. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Clyde Tombaugh:

February 4, 1906 - January 17, 1997


Born in Streator, Illinois, Tombaugh and his family moved to Burdette, Kansas, when he was still young. Unable to go to college because he was needed on his family’s farm, Tombaugh was largely self-taught. When he was still young, he began to build his own telescopes and was hired to work at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, which was and still is run by members of the Lowell family. He stayed at the Observatory from 1929 to 1945. During his time there, Tombaugh attended the University of Kansas. He worked at the observatory during his summer breaks. Tombaugh’s Discoveries At Lowell Observatory, Tombaugh was given the job of actively searching for Pluto. He used a 13-inch astrograph, which is a telescope that takes pictures of the stars. The blink microscope helped him tell the different images apart and compare them. A moving object would change position while the stars remained motionless. Though he eventually discovered Pluto this way on February 18, 1930, Tombaugh found many asteroids in the meantime. The first one he found he named after his daughter, Annette. He was fond of naming asteroids after members of his family. Besides the hundreds of asteroids Tombaugh discovered, he also discovered variable stars, which change in brightness over time. He also found clusters of stars and galaxies and at least one supercluster of galaxies. He also claimed to have seen UFOs in New Mexico. Though he prided himself on his scientific objectivity, he could not rule out the possibility that these UFOs had an extraterrestrial origin. He became part of a project that searched for near-earth satellites, but claimed that the search, in the end, was unsuccessful.

Famous Astronomers. (2011). Famous Astronomers. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Percival Lowell:

March 13, 1855- November 12, 1916


Percival Lowell, American astronomer who predicted the existence of a planet beyond the orbit of Neptune and initiated the search that ended in the discovery of Pluto. A member of the distinguished Lowell family of Massachusetts, he devoted himself (1883–93) to literature and travel, much of the time in the Far East, which he described in Chosön (1886), The Soul of the Far East (1888), Noto (1891), and Occult Japan (1895). During part of this time he was counselor and foreign secretary to the Korean Special Mission to the United States. In the 1890s, inspired by Giovanni Schiaparelli’s discovery of “canals” on Mars, Lowell decided to devote his fortune and energy to the study of Mars. After careful consideration of desirable sites, he built a private observatory at Flagstaff, Ariz. Lowell championed the now-abandoned theory that intelligent inhabitants of a dying Mars constructed a planet-wide system of irrigation, utilizing water from the polar ice caps, which melt annually. He thought the canals were bands of cultivated vegetation dependent on this irrigation. Among his many books on this subject is Mars and Its Canals (1906). Lowell’s theory, long vigorously opposed, was finally put to rest by information received from the U.S. spacecraft Mariner 4 when it flew past Mars in July 1965. Early in the 20th century Lowell made an elaborate mathematical study of the orbit of Uranus. He attributed certain irregularities to the action of an unseen planet beyond Neptune and calculated its probable position. In 1905 he organized a systematic search for the planet by the staff of his observatory, and in 1915 he published his “Memoir on a Trans-Neptunian Planet.” Fourteen years after his death the search culminated in the discovery of Pluto.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2017). Percival Lowell American Astronomer. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

IsAac NewtoN:

January 4, 1643- March 31, 1727


Isaac Newton was born in Woolsthorpe, England on December 25th, 1642. He went to Grantham grammar school, but he was more interested in making mechanical models than he was in studying and was considered a poor student. His boyish hobbies led to a small windmill that could grind corn and wheat, a water clock and a sundial. Newton left school when he was 14 because his widowed mother needed him to help with their farm. He was no better at this than he was at being a schoolboy and he was eventually sent back to school. Newton entered Trinity College at Cambridge University in 1661. Here again he was a mediocre student. He left school in 1665 without distinction, but returned in 1667 as a fellow. In 1669 he became professor of mathematics and gave lectures on geometry, astronomy, optics and mathematics. He later quit and went to work for the government and was made a fellow of the Royal Society in 1672.Newton claimed that he began to think about a theory of gravity while he was drinking tea one afternoon and saw an apple fall from a tree. This made him realize that the same force that made the apple fall is what keeps the moon in its orbit. He extrapolated from this to realize that gravity makes every pair of bodies in the universe attracted each other. He also learned that the strength of gravity depends on the amount of matter in the bodies being attracted and the distance between the bodies. Newton also showed why the apple might fall straight to earth while the moon moved in a circle around the earth. He showed that the moon was falling constantly toward the earth and if it moved in a straight line, it would fly out of its orbit. In 1684, Edmund Halley, the English astronomer, urged Newton to publish his findings on gravity. In 1687 Newton’s discoveries were published in Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Even today this book is considered one of the great scientific books of all time. In 1704, Newton published Optiks. In this book, he explained why bodies appear to be colored. This laid the foundation for spectrum analysis, which allows scientists to determine the temperature, chemical composition and speed of bodies like distant stars. Newton also discovered that sunlight is a mix of light of all colors while passing sunlight through a prism.

Famous Astronomers. (2011). Famous Astronomers. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Vera Rubin:

July 23, 1928- December 25, 2016


Vera Rubin, American astronomer who made groundbreaking observations that provided evidence for the existence of a vast amount of dark matter in the universe. The Swiss American astronomer Fritz Zwicky had in 1933 observed that the mass of stars within a galaxy that he observed was insufficient to keep the galaxy from flying apart, and he deduced that there must be some “missing mass” holding the galaxy together. In the 1970s Rubin, working with her colleague Kent Ford, began measuring the rotation of spiral galaxies and found that stars on the outer edges of galaxies spun at least as fast around the centre as those in the inner regions, counter to Rubin’s expectations. Rubin examined more than 60 spiral galaxies and found that her original observations were borne out in every case. The existence of a substantial amount of dark matter provided the most-reasonable explanation for those findings. Rubin studied astronomy at Vassar College, graduating in 1948. She earned (1951) a master’s degree from Cornell University and (1954) a Ph.D. from Georgetown University. Her doctoral thesis showed that galaxies are not distributed uniformly but instead are found in clumps. After teaching at Montgomery College and at Georgetown, Rubin joined (1965) the Carnegie Institution, where she spent the majority of her career. In the mid-1960s she was the first woman permitted to use the Hale Telescope at the Palomar Observatory at Caltech. Rubin met with resistance during her career because of her sex, and she was an outspoken advocate for women in the sciences. She was admitted (1981) into the National Academy of Sciences and was awarded (1993) the National Medal of Science.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2017). Vera Rubin American Astronomer. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Edwin Hubble:

November 20, 1889- September 28, 1953


Edwin Hubble was born in 1889. During his early years, he was noted more for his prowess in athletics than in his intellectual capabilities. He was a gifted athlete who played football, basketball, baseball and track. In fact, he ran track in both college and high school. He went to school at the University of Chicago and concentrated mainly on math, philosophy, and astronomy. These earned him a bachelor’s degree in science in 1910. He was married to one wife, Grace Hubble
Hubble’s father wanted him to study law. As a result, Edwin studied law at the University of Chicago and then later at Oxford. Since he did not have a passion for law, he began teaching physics, math, and Spanish at the New Albany High School after his father died. At the age of 25, he gave up his teaching career and became a professional astronomer.

Famous Astronomers. (2011). Famous Astronomers. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from



a star that suddenly becomes thousands of times brighter and then gradually fades to its original intensity. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


The brilliant point of light is the explosion of a star that has reached the end of its life, otherwise known as a supernova. Supernovas can briefly outshine entire galaxies and radiate more energy than our sun will in its entire lifetime. They're also the primary source of heavy elements in the universe. (n.a.). What is Supernova. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Open Cluster:

An open cluster is a group of up to a few thousand stars that were formed from the same giant molecular cloud, and are still loosely gravitationally bound to each other.

Science Daily. (2016). Open Cluster. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Globular Cluster:

Globular cluster, a large group of old stars that are closely packed in a symmetrical, somewhat spherical form. Globular clusters, so called because of their roughly spherical appearance, are the largest and most massive star clusters.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2017). Globular Cluster Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


a cloud of gas and dust in space. Some nebulae (more than one nebula) are regions where new stars are being formed, while others are the remains of dead or dying stars. Nebulae come in many different shapes and sizes. There are four main types of nebulae: planetary nebulae, reflection nebulae, emission nebulae, and absorption nebulae. The word nebula comes from the Latin word for cloud.

Cool Cosmos. (n.d.). What is a Nebula. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


a large system of stars held together by mutual gravitation and isolated from similar systems by vast regions of space. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


one of over a thousand known extragalactic objects, starlike in appearance and having spectra with characteristically large redshifts, that are thought to be the most distant and most luminous objects in the universe. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Black Hole:

a theoretical massive object, formed at the beginning of the universe or by the gravitational collapse of a star exploding as a supernova, whose gravitational field is so intense that no electromagnetic radiation can escape. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


one of several hundred known celestial objects, generally believed to be rapidly rotating neutron stars, that emit pulses of radiation, especially radio waves, with a high degree of regularity. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Black Dwarf:

a star, approximately the size of the earth, that has undergone gravitational collapse and is in the final stage of evolution for low-mass stars, beginning hot and white and ending cold and dark (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

White Dwarf:

A white dwarf is what stars like the Sun become after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel. Near the end of its nuclear burning stage, this type of star expels most of its outer material, creating a planetary nebula. Only the hot core of the star remains.

NASA. (17-Nov-2014). White Dwarf Stars. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Solar System


the star that is the central body of the solar system, around which the planets revolve and from which they receive light and heat: its mean distance from the earth is about 93 million miles (150 million km), its diameter about 864,000 miles (1.4 million km), and its mass about 330,000 times that of the earth; its period of surface rotation is about 26 days at its equator but longer at higher latitudes. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Solar Flare:

Solar flares are powerful bursts of radiation. Harmful radiation from a flare cannot pass through Earth's atmosphere to physically affect humans on the ground, however — when intense enough — they can disturb the atmosphere in the layer where GPS and communications signals travel.

NASA. (April 26, 2016). SDO Capture Stunning View of April 17 Solar Flare. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Solar Prominence:

A solar prominence (also known as a filament when viewed against the solar disk) is a large, bright feature extending outward from the Sun's surface. Prominences are anchored to the Sun's surface in the photosphere, and extend outwards into the Sun's hot outer atmosphere, called the corona.

NASA. (July, 30, 2015). What is a solar prominence? Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


one of the relatively dark patches that appear periodically on the surface of the sun and affect terrestrial magnetism and certain other terrestrial phenomena. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Solar Wind:

one of the relatively dark patches that appear periodically on the surface of the sun and affect terrestrial magnetism and certain other terrestrial phenomena. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


The Aurora is an incredible light show caused by collisions between electrically charged particles released from the sun that enter the earth's atmosphere and collide with gases such as oxygen and nitrogen. The lights are seen around the magnetic poles of the northern and southern hemispheres. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Solar Eclipse:

the obscuration of the light of the moon by the intervention of the earth between it and the sun (lunar eclipse) or the obscuration of the light of the sun by the intervention of the moon between it and a point on the earth (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


a heavy, silver-white, highly toxic metallic element, the only one that is liquid at room temperature; quicksilver: used in barometers, thermometers, pesticides, pharmaceutical preparations, reflecting surfaces of mirrors, and dental fillings, in certain switches, lamps, and other electric apparatus, and as a laboratory catalyst. Symbol: Hg; atomic weight: 200.59; atomic number: 80; specific gravity: 13.546 at 20°C; freezing point: −38.9°C; boiling point: 357°C. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


Venus is the second planet from the sun and our closest planetary neighbor. Similar in structure and size to Earth, Venus spins slowly in the opposite direction most planets do. Its thick atmosphere traps heat in a runaway greenhouse effect, making it the hottest planet in our solar system with surface temperatures hot enough to melt lead. Glimpses below the clouds reveal volcanoes and deformed mountains. Venus is named for the ancient Roman goddess of love and beauty, the counterpart to the Greek goddess Aphrodite.

NASA. (n.d.). Venus: Overview: Planetary Hot Spot. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


the planet fourth in order from the sun, having a diameter of 4222 miles (6794 km), a mean distance from the sun of 141.6 million miles (227.9 million km), a period of revolution of 686.95 days, and two moons. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


the planet fifth in order from the sun, having an equatorial diameter of 88,729 miles (142,796 km), a mean distance from the sun of 483.6 million miles (778.3 million km), a period of revolution of 11.86 years, and at least 14 moons. It is the largest planet in the solar system. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


the planet sixth in order from the sun, having an equatorial diameter of 74,600 miles (120,000 km), a mean distance from the sun of 886.7 million miles (1427 million km), a period of revolution of 29.46 years, and 21 known moons. It is the second largest planet in the solar system, encompassed by a series of thin, flat rings composed of small particles of ice. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


the planet seventh in order from the sun, having an equatorial diameter of 32,600 miles (56,460 km), a mean distance from the sun of 1,784 million miles (2,871 million km), a period of revolution of 84.07 years, and 15 moons. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


the planet eighth in order from the sun, having an equatorial diameter of 30,200 miles (48,600 km), a mean distance from the sun of 2794.4 million miles (4497.1 million km), a period of revolution of 164.81 years, and two moons. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


a dwarf planet having an equatorial diameter of about 2100 miles (3300 km), a mean distance from the sun of 3.674 billion miles (5.914 billion km), a period of revolution of 248.53 years, and one known moon, Charon. Until 2006, Pluto was classified as a planet ninth in order from the sun; the International Astronomical Union has reclassified it as a dwarf planet. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


a celestial body moving about the sun, usually in a highly eccentric orbit, consisting of a central mass surrounded by an envelope of dust and gas that may form a tail that streams away from the sun. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Oort Cloud:

a region of the solar system far beyond the orbit of the dwarf planet Pluto in which billions of comets move in nearly circular orbits unless one is pulled into a highly eccentric elliptical orbit by a passing star. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Asteroid Belt:

the region of space between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter in which most asteroids are located. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


a mass of stone or metal that has reached the earth from outer space; a fallen meteoroid. (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


the earth's natural satellite, orbiting the earth at a mean distance of 238,857 miles (384,393 km) and having a diameter of 2160 miles (3476 km). (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from


Apparent Magnitudes

the magnitude of a star as it appears to an observer on the earth.

Absolute Magnitude

the magnitude of a star as it would appear to a hypothetical observer at a distance of 10 parsecs or 32.6 light-years.

Eclipsing Variable Star

A variable star whose change in luminosity is caused by two or more stars in a binary or multiple system eclipsing each other rather than by any intrinsic property of the star itself. The period of variation coincides with the orbital period of the system and can range from a few minutes to several years. See more under binary star, multiple star.

Variable Star

a star that varies markedly in brightness from time to time.

Light Year

the distance traversed by light in one mean solar year, about 5.88 trillion mi. (9.46 trillion km): used as a unit in measuring stellar distances.

Astronomical Unit

a unit of length, equal to the mean distance of the earth from the sun: approximately 93 million miles (150 million km).

Event Horizon

the boundary around a black hole on and within which no matter or radiation can escape.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

the entire spectrum, considered as a continuum, of all kinds of electric, magnetic, and visible radiation, from gamma rays having a wavelength of 0.001 angstrom to long waves having a wavelength of more than 1 million km.


Colors of the rainbow: Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet

Dark Matter

a hypothetical form of matter invisible to electromagnetic radiation, postulated to account for gravitational forces observed in the universe.

All from/ (2017). Astronomy. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

Weird Facts

If this makes you feel small, it should, because scientists estimate that there are hundreds of billions more galaxies in the universe, none of which you can see without a telescope. Moreover each one of these galaxies has billions of stars which brings the grand total number of stars in the universe to 10 billion trillion which is 10 followed by 21 zeros. Thats more stars than the number of grains of sand on the Earth.

List 25. (2011-2017). 25 Facts About The Universe. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

For those of you considering opening your own pubs, there is probably no place better than Sagittarius B. Although it is 26,000 light years away this interstellar cloud of gas and dust contains over a billion billion billion liters of vinyl alcohol. Okay, so its not really drinkible but it is a very important organic compound that is critical to the existence of life.

List 25. (2011-2017). 25 Facts About The Universe. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

In 2004 scientists discovered the largest diamond ever. In fact it’s a collapsed star. Measuring 4000 km across and having a core composed of 10 billion trillion trillion carats it’s roughly 50 light years from the Earth.

List 25. (2011-2017). 25 Facts About The Universe. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

As big as the planet Saturn is, if you were to put it in a glass of water, it would float. This is because its density is .687 grams per cm cubed while water’s is the famous .998 g per cm cubed. Unfortunately though, you would need a glass that is over 120,000 km in diameter to witness this.

List 25. (2011-2017). 25 Facts About The Universe. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

While most of us know that the light hitting Earth took 8 minutes to cross the 93 million miles between our skin and the surface of the Sun, did you know that the energy in those rays started their life over 30,000 years ago deep within the core of the sun? They were formed by an intense fusion reaction and spent most of those thousands of years making their way to the Sun’s surface.

List 25. (2011-2017). 25 Facts About The Universe. Retrieved May 5, 2017 from

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