Challenging the Corporate Ethic By francisco gallo, chloe schwipper, and susie Gray


an income tax: Sixteenth Amendment: “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.”

Direct election of Senator: Seventeenth Amendment: “The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.”

Prohibition: Eighteenth Amendment: “After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.”

Women's suffrage: Nineteenth Amendment: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.”


widespread social activism and political reform

caused by industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and corruption in government, “responding to the movements of the 19th century (Social Darwinism, industrial growth, etc.)”

1900: age of mass media: corruption was exposed, journalists wrote about scandals and political sins

Modernization: science and technology served as solutions to the weaknesses of society, urban/industrial society was highly favored

Progressive movement (main ideas and goals): support middle class reform, highlighted efficiency in society/elimination of government corruption/worker compensation/women's suffrage/different child labor laws/rejected social Darwinism/desire to include people directly in the political process/government needed to be involved in social reforms

“Purifying the electorate”: put an end to illegal voting because it was corrupting the political system

Social Gospel: Protestant movement that called for social action along with personal improvement. Advocated for worker’s rights and for the reform of industrial systems in the progressive era. Some of these reforms, were the banning of child labor, fewer work hours.

Washington Gladden was a leader of the Social Gospel movement, which applied Christian ethics to social injustices such as economic inequality, poverty, racial tensions, slums, child labor, and inadequate labor unions. His 1877 book The Christian Way: Whither it Leads and How to Go On called for “the extension of Christian values into everyday life.” He also was a member of the Progressive movement.

Journalists such as Ray Stannard Baker, George Creel, and Brand Whitlock used their position to expose corruption
Jacob Riss, a Dutch photographer, showed the realities of the urban poor and helped spur movements of social reform. "How the Other Half Lives" was his famous book.


Francisco, Chlo, Suz

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