Mountains The Alps

The Alps are made up of 5 regions; the Subalpine, the Alpine, the Glacial, the olive, and the Grape.

The Climate of the forest in the Alps

In the European Alps much of the precipitation comes in the form of snow, hail, and rain.

Precipitation near Liechtenstein, Austria

  • Average Annual Precipitation: 39.4 inches per year
  • Max. Precipitation: 4.9 inches (in August)
  • Min. Precipitation: 1.8 inches (in March)


  • Average Temperature- Winter: 30 degrees Fahrenheit 70 degrees Fahrenheit
  • Max. Temperature: 75 Degrees Fahrenheit (in July)
  • Min. Temperature: -10 degrees Fahrenheit (in January)

There are no significant seasons in the Alps. In the summer, the Alps can receive a lot of precipitation in the form of rain. In the Winter, the precipitation can be in the form of snow, hail, or rain.

Net Primary Productivity

Compared to other biomes, the Mountains are much different because of how the elevation of the mountains affects the environments on them. At the bottom of a mountain there is much less elevation so life tends to prosper more than going up in elevation where there is little to no life. Other biomes will have much more life because they don't have much of a difference in elevation, which means there life will be mostly constant. There are no certain latitudes that mountains form around. The elevation causes the air to get thinner, colder, and less life.

Soil Quality

The soil quality of the Alps is very low, to the point were life is probable not to grow, because of the lack of nutrients. So the land is not usually used for farming, except for sometimes closest to the valley floor, grapes and olives are grown.

Invasive and Endangered Species



The Nutria was purposely introduced to Europe. It wasn't supposed to become so invasive all throughout Europe, but its fast reproduction rate, and enough resources allowed the species to prosper.


Alpine Shrew

The Alpine shrew is found all throughout the Alps in Europe. The Alpine Shrew is endangered because of its population declining due to habitat destruction.

Popular Animals in the Mountains (The Alps)

Red Squirrel

Adaptations to survive the Mountains biome:

  • Live in nest high up in trees
  • Thick fur to keep warm
  • Store food so they have a reasonable supply for winter
  • Highly intelligent

Alpine Ibex

Adaptations to survive the Mountains biome:

  • Have long, woolly hair to keep warm in the winter, and short, fuzzy hair for summer months
  • Horns to attract mates to reproduce
  • Large lung capacity when climbing mountains with high altitudes
  • Long and strong legs to climb mountains

European Lynx

Adaptations to survive the Mountains biome:

  • Whiskers and hearing to aid in hunting
  • Sharp teeth and bristly tongue allow them to tear meat off bones
  • Thick coat of fur to protect its self from the cold, and provide camoflaugue

Plants in the Mountains Biome (The Alps)


Adaptations to survive the Mountains biome:

  • Protects leaves through leaf retention
  • Aclimation
  • Bark and buds keep water in
  • 65 to 147 feet tall


Adaptations to survive the Mountains biome:

  • Deep-delving roots
  • Frost resistance
  • grow up to 60 cm in height
  • Succulent Foliage


Adaptations to survive the Mountains binome:

  • Needles to keep heat in
  • Needles also shed snow
  • keep water in, and less evaporates


Created with images by kewl - "aoraki mount cook mountain"

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