Definition: an attack directed against a person rather than the position they are maintaining.
Example: “How can you argue your case for vegetarianism when you are enjoying your steak?”
Definition: an expression that recalls another work in history, or a famous person.
Example: “When she lost her job, she acted like a Scrooge, and refused to buy anything that wasn’t necessary.”
Definition: a similarity between like features of two things
Example: Basil is to herb as oak is to tree
Definition: an opposition to your claim or another's claim
Example: "Speech is silver, but silence is gold."
Definition: a statement that contains opinions or truth.
Example: "There's no time like the present."
ig- nor- ance ar-gu-ment
Definition: an argument that something is true because it hasn't been proven false.
Example: "To this very day (at the time of this writing), science has been unable to create life from non-life; therefore, life must be a result of divine intervention."
Definition: following the crowd fallacy.
Example: "Marcus wants to go to a small community college close to home, but most of the kids in his class are applying to larger colleges out of state. Marcus decides that he should also apply to those colleges."
Begging the Question
beg-ging the qu-est-ion
Definition: an argument that occurs when the speaker states a claim that uses a word that needs to be defined.
Example: "Killing people is wrong, so the death penalty is wrong."
Definition: meaning of a word in addition to its meaning
Example: "Home suggests family, comfort and security."
Definition: the literal meaning of a word in contrast to what the word suggests.
Example: "Rose-literally a type of flower. Used as a symbol for love and beauty."