Gaule-The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age. The Gauls, the largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language.
Crusades-The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church between the 11th and 16th centuries, especially the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of capturing Jerusalem from Islamic rule.
Charlemagne- also known as Charles the Great or Charles I was King of the Franks. He united a large part of Europe during the early Middle Ages and laid the foundations for modern France, Germany and the Low Countries.
Holy Roman Empire-In 1789 the lands of Germany had been know as the Holy Roman Empire for over 800 years. It was spread all across central Europe and was home to various modern nations, such as Germany, Austria, Hungary, Belgium, parts of Italy. The most notably member of the Holy Roman Empire were the Habsburg Empire, the Austrian branch which was ruled by Joseph II who also happened to be the elected Holy Roman Emperor. The Kingdom of Prussia had a personal union with the Margraviate of Brandenburg which was situated within the boundries of the Holy Roman Empire.
Roman people-Families living in the Roman Empire took many different forms. In general, there was more equality between men and women under Roman law than there had been under the Greeks or under West Asian law. But there was more equality in the western part of the Empire, in Europe and North Africa (including Egypt), than there was in the east, in West Asia, where most people continued to follow West Asian and Greek traditions.
People of minority races or cultures probably were more comfortable under the Roman Empire than they were before or after. There were people of so many different cultures travelling around the empire interacting with each other that there seems to have been in general a lot of tolerance for other cultures. On the other hand, this contact did also cause tensions, which sometimes burst out into violent persecutions of minority groups.
A woman pharmacist and her enstlaved assistant
People were forced into slavery in every corner of the Roman empire, from the beginning to the end, but again the kind of slavery and the way enslaved people were treated depended on where you were and also on when. In Italy and Sicily, and maybe in some other places, big farms were worked by slave field-hands, who were very badly treated. But other slaves were house servants, like nannies, nurses, cooks, laundry-women, and stable-boys who took care of the horses. These were generally better treated. A lot of enslaved people also worked for the Roman government, or for private businesses, as managers, or running a shop, or in small factories. Still other enslaved people were criminals who had been sentenced to work in the mines or other hard labor as punishment. Even if they were freed, people who had once been enslaved still didn't have the same rights as other people, but their children did, if they had been born free.
Plagues- The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–1353. Although there were several competing theories as to the etiology of the Black Death, analysis of DNA from victims in northern and southern Europe published in 2010 and 2011.
Enlightenment- European politics, philosophy, science and communications were radically reoriented during the course of the “long 18th century” (1685-1815) as part of a movement referred to by its participants as the Age of Reason, or simply the Enlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers in Britain, in France and throughout Europe questioned traditional authority and embraced the notion that humanity could be improved through rational change. The Enlightenment produced numerous books, essays, inventions, scientific discoveries, laws, wars and revolutions. The American and French Revolutions were directly inspired by Enlightenment ideals and respectively marked the peak of its influence and the beginning of its decline. The Enlightenment ultimately gave way to 19th-century Romanticism.
The Renaissance- is a period in European history, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history 1300-1600.
Protestant Persecution-The Michelade massacre in 1567