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比尔.格茨:五角大楼加紧终结中国军事控制太空的“梦想” 【翻译】

Pentagon races to end China's 'dream' of military domination in space

华盛顿时报 比尔格茨 11月24日: 五角大楼加紧终结中国军事控制太空的“梦想”

By Bill Gertz - The Washington Times - Sunday, November 24, 2019

比尔·格茨——《华盛顿时报》——2019年11月24日,星期日

The United States and China are rapidly building space warfare capabilities as part of a race to dominate the zone outside Earth’s atmosphere.

美国和中国正在迅速建设太空战能力,作为主导地球大气层以外区域竞赛的一部分。

Air Force Gen. John W. Raymond, commander of the Pentagon’s new Space Command, said last week that the threat of attacks against vital American satellites is real.

五角大楼新太空司令部司令、空军上将约翰·w·雷蒙德(John W. Raymond)上周表示, 攻击美国重要卫星的威胁是真实存在的。

“I can tell you from my perspective, the scope, scale and complexity of that threat is alive and well and very concerning,” Gen. Raymond told an audience Nov. 18 at the Center for Strategic and International Studies.

雷蒙德11月18日在战略与国际研究中心(Center for Strategic and International Studies)对听众说,“我可以从我的角度告诉你们,这种威胁的范围、规模和复杂性依然存在,令人非常担忧。”

China’s strategy for dominating space was detailed this month in the annual report of the congressional U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. The commission report warned that China wants to dominate the zone between the Earth and the moon, known as cislunar space, as part of what the ruling Communist Party of China calls the “Space Dream.”

美国国会美中经济与安全审查委员会,本月发布的年度报告详细阐述了中国主导太空的战略。该委员会的报告警告说,中国希望控制地球和月球之间的“地月空间”,这是执政的中国共产党所称的“太空梦”的一部分。

China is planning a permanent base on the moon as part of the dual military and commercial program.

中国正计划在月球上建立一个永久基地,作为军事和商业双重计划的一部分。

“Beijing is clearly of the view that the country that leads in space may also be economically and militarily dominant on Earth,” the report said.

报告称:“北京显然认为,在太空领先的国家也可能在经济和军事上占主导地位。”

Similarly, the Chinese military’s Joint Staff in 2018 said the goal is to achieve “space superiority” — controlling space without interference from ground-based or space-based threats.

同样,中国军方联合参谋部在2018年表示,目标是实现“空间优势”——在不受来自地面或太空干扰的情况下控制空间。

Gen. Raymond disclosed during his Senate nomination hearing in June for the first time that the Pentagon is working on “counterspace weapons” to conduct offensive and defense military operations in space.

雷蒙德上将在6月的参议院提名的听证会上首次透露,五角大楼正在研究“反太空武器”,以便在太空开展进攻和防御军事行动。

The four-star general said China and Russia are the main space warfare threats and that the U.S. needs to quickly develop offensive and defensive capabilities to deter their weapons and be able to fight in space if needed.

这位四星上将说,中国和俄罗斯是太空战的主要威胁,美国需要迅速发展进攻和防御能力,以遏制他们的武器,并在必要时有能力在太空作战。

“We are developing new counterspace systems while new and legacy space systems are incorporating defensive measures and tactics,” he said in written answers to questions from the Senate Armed Services Committee.

“我们正在开发新的反空间系统,而新的和遗留的空间系统将纳入防御措施和战术,”他在书面回答参议院军事委员会的问题时说。

No details of U.S. space warfare arms were disclosed. A spokesman for the Space Command had no immediate comment.

没有透露美国太空战武器的细节。太空司令部发言人没有立即发表评论。

Broad buildup 广泛的建设

The U.S. space warfare buildup is being conducted in secret and includes several units, including the Space Development Agency and the Air Force Space Rapid Capabilities Office at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

美国的空间战建设正在秘密进行,包括几个单位,包括空间发展署和空军空间快速能力办公室在科特兰空军基地,新墨西哥州。

Current counterspace weapons include dedicated and dual-use systems, including missiles, electronic jammers and lasers. The secretive Air Force space plane, the X-37B, also is expected to be an element of future U.S. space warfare assets.

目前的反太空武器包括专用和两用系统,包括导弹、电子干扰器和激光。神秘的空军太空飞机,X-37B,也有望成为未来美国太空战资产的一部分。

Successive presidential administrations and Congress since the 1950s have blocked or limited development of space weapons over concerns about “weaponizing” space, but China and Russia in recent years have built and deployed anti-satellite missiles, ground-based anti-satellite lasers and orbiting robot satellite killers for space warfare.

自上世纪50年代以来,历届美国总统和国会都曾出于对太空“武器化”的担忧而阻止或限制太空武器的发展,但中国和俄罗斯近年来已经制造和部署了反卫星导弹、地基反卫星激光和轨道机器人卫星杀手,用于太空战争。

A Rand Corp. report found that U.S. counterspace weapons in the past included ground- and air-launched Air Force satellite-killing missiles. The most recent was ASM-135, a missile launched from an F-15 jet that destroyed a U.S. satellite in a 1985 test. The program was canceled later that year.

兰德公司(Rand Corp.)的一份报告发现,美国过去的反太空武器包括地面和空中发射的空军卫星杀伤导弹。最近的一次是ASM-135,它是由一架F-15战机发射的导弹,在1985年的一次测试中摧毁了一颗美国卫星。该项目于当年晚些时候被取消。

The Air Force in 2002 began work on two ground-based electronic warfare systems capable of temporarily disrupting satellites. The Counter Surveillance Reconnaissance System was a mobile unit capable of denying enemy satellites the ability to spy on U.S. forces, but Congress defunded the system in 2004.

2002年,美国空军开始研制两套能够暂时干扰卫星的地面电子战系统。反监视侦察系统是一个机动单位,能够阻止敌方卫星监视美国军队,但是国会在2004年取消了对该系统的资助。

The second system, the Counter Communications System, is a mobile electronic jammer that can disrupt enemy command and control satellites. At least seven of these systems have been deployed.

The military also has a number of dual-use missiles and lasers that could be modified for anti-satellite warfare.

第二个系统是反通信系统,它是一种移动电子干扰器,可以干扰敌人的指挥和控制卫星。至少已经部署了7个这样的系统。 美国军方还拥有一些两用导弹和激光武器,可改装用于反卫星战争。

A Navy Standard Missile-3 was modified in 2008 to shoot down an orbiting National Reconnaissance Office satellite and prevent it from reentering the atmosphere and possibly hitting a populated area.

2008年,一枚海军标准导弹-3进行改装后,击落了一颗国家侦察办公室的轨道运行卫星,防止它重新进入大气层,并可能击中人口稠密地区。

The Terminal High Altitude Area Defense anti-missile system also is believed to have capabilities for shooting down enemy satellites.

终端高空区域防御反导系统也被认为具有击落敌方卫星的能力。

American laser ranging stations could be used for targeting enemy satellites, and the Navy’s high-powered Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser, already used in directed energy tests to shoot down drones and missiles, also could be used in the future against satellites.

美国激光测距站可以用来定位敌方卫星,海军的高能中红外先进化学激光,已经用于击落无人机和导弹的定向能量测试,也可以用于未来对付卫星。

A U.S. ‘vulnerability’ 美国的“不足”

The commission report asserts that Chinese military strategists view space as the “commanding height” to be dominated in conflict. The People’s Liberation Army has adopted warfare concepts on the use of space weapons that would “destabilize the space domain,” the report said.

该委员会的报告称,中国军事战略家将太空视为在冲突中占据主导地位的“制高点”。报告称,中国人民解放军采纳了使用太空武器的作战概念,这些武器将“破坏太空领域的稳定”。

“China views space as a critical U.S. military and economic vulnerability, and has fielded an array of direct-ascent, cyber, electromagnetic, and co-orbital counterspace weapons capable of targeting nearly every class of U.S. space asset,” the report said.

报告说:“中国认为太空是美国军事和经济的一个重要弱点,并部署了一系列直接升空,网络、电磁和共轨道反太空武器,能够针对美国几乎每一类太空资产。”

The United States also could be unable to deter the Chinese from attacking the hundreds of U.S. satellites used for military and commercial purposes.

美国也可能无法阻止中国攻击数百颗用于军事和商业目的的美国卫星。

“China’s goal to establish a leading position in the economic and military use of outer space, or what Beijing calls its ‘space dream,’ is a core component of its aim to realize the ‘great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation,’” the report states.

报告指出:“中国的目标是在经济和军事利用外层空间方面确立领先地位,或者北京所说的‘太空梦’,是实现‘中华民族伟大复兴’目标的核心组成部分。”

Larry Wortzel, a former military intelligence official and a member of the congressional commission, said China is emerging as a peer competitor from military and commercial standpoints.

前军事情报官员、国会委员会成员沃策尔(Larry Wortzel)说,从军事和商业角度看,中国正在成为一个竞争对手。

“In terms of counterspace and the ability of [China] to attack U.S. space assets, the PLA may be ahead of the U.S. military,” Mr. Wortzel said. “More seriously, if it came to acting, [China] has the advantage. The People’s Liberation Army only has to get permission from one body at the top of the Communist Party to act. The U.S. military would have to run a gauntlet of lawyers, National Security Council and White House staffers, and congressional leaders before it could act.”

“就抗衡空间和(中国)攻击美国太空资产的能力而言,解放军可能领先于美国军方,”沃策尔说。更严重的是,在行动方面,(中国)具有优势。中国人民解放军采取行动只需要得到中共最高层的一个机构的许可。在采取行动之前,美国军方将不得不面对律师、国家安全委员会和白宫工作人员以及国会领导人的挑战。”

Mr. Wortzel said China is using its alternative to GPS known as the BeiDou navigation system commercially to promote its global economic program known as the Belt and Road Initiative.

沃策尔说,中国在商业上使用北斗导航系统作为全球定位系统的替代品,以推进其“一带一路”全球经济计划。

“It is a challenge for the U.S. to do the same,” he said.

他说:“要做到同样的这些,对美国是一个挑战。”

Seeking dominance 寻求主导地位

Gen. Raymond warned lawmakers that China is working to become dominant in space with an array of weapons.

雷蒙德警告国会议员说,中国正努力通过一系列武器在太空领域占据主导地位。

“China is making considerable gains and our operational advantage is shrinking,” he said in his written answers to the Senate panel.

“中国正在取得相当大的进展,而我们的运行优势正在缩小,”他在对参议院小组的书面答复中表示。

“China is pursuing a full spectrum of threats to our space capabilities, including reversible jamming, directed energy weapons, cyber threats, orbital threats, and kinetic energy threats from ground-based missiles.

“中国正在对我们的太空能力进行全方位的威胁,包括可逆干扰、定向能武器、网络威胁、轨道威胁和来自地面导弹的动能威胁。

“China proved its kinetic capability in 2007, and the risk to U.S. space capabilities will increase if they pursue additional weapons capable of destroying satellites up to geo-synchronous orbit.”

“中国在2007年证明了它的动力学能力,如果他们寻求更多的武器来摧毁地球同步轨道上的卫星,美国太空能力的风险将会增加。”

The U.S. military, Gen. Raymond added, will “need systems to counter the full spectrum of space threats, from reversible jamming, to directed energy, on-orbit activities, and kinetic destruction from the ground.” Other needs are better defenses such as hardening satellites against laser attacks and advanced computing, “big data” analytics, and artificial intelligence to monitor space threats.

雷蒙德还说,美国军方将“需要各种系统来应对各种空间威胁,从可逆干扰、定向能、在轨活动,到地面动能破坏。” 其他需要的是更好的防御措施,如加强卫星对激光攻击和先进计算的防御,“大数据”分析,以及监测空间威胁的人工智能。

The goal, he said, is to “out-maneuver our adversaries through superior battlespace awareness and command and control.”

“With strong budget support, improvements are underway in the development of new space capabilities.”

他说,我们的目标是“通过卓越的战场意识、指挥和控制,战胜我们的对手”。 “在强有力的预算支持下,新的太空实力的发展和改善正在进行。”

Rick Fisher, senior fellow at the International Assessment and Strategy Center, said the commission’s report provides new details on China’s strategic ambition in space and the impact on U.S. security on Earth.

国际评估与战略中心(International Assessment and Strategy Center)高级研究员费希尔(Rick Fisher)说,该委员会的报告提供了有关中国在太空的战略雄心以及影响美国在地球安全的新细节。

“China may be only catching up to the United States in space in most technical respects, but it is the Chinese Communist Party leadership’s ability to weave an integrated military-political-economic strategy for space control that may allow it to prevail in space over the democracies,” Mr. Fisher said.

中国可能只是迎头赶上美国在太空的大多数技术方面,但这是中国共产党的领导力,他们编织了一个集军事政治经济于一体的空间控制战略,这可能让它在空间上赢取民主国家,”费舍尔说。

One key to thwarting Chinese dominance in space will be denying Beijing control over the moon and the region of space between it and the Earth.

阻挠中国在太空领域主导地位的一个关键是拒绝北京控制月球及其与地球之间的太空区域。

“If America fails to beat China back to the moon to secure commanding positions that can help deter conflict, we are then condemning our country and military forces to many future wars with China,” Mr. Fisher said.

“如果美国不能把中国打回月球,从而获得有助于遏制冲突的指挥地位,我们就将谴责我们的国家和军队,在未来会与中国发生许多战争,”费舍尔说。

原文链接

https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2019/nov/24/china-raises-space-military-challenge-us/

【秘密翻译组】