What was reconstruction? Reconstruction was when the president and congress led the efforts to restore the South to the Union after the Civil War.
Why did it happen? Former confederate states governments had to be replaced with governments loyal to the United States. President Lincoln and congress has to decide the terms under which those states could rejoin the union.
What was Texas/ the south like at the end if the war? The war left Texas with many problems, the cost of raising and equipping troops left the state deeply in debt.
Two presidential plans
What was Lincoln's plan for reconstruction? He hoped to restore the union as fast as possible. Lincoln believed that punishing the south would only delay healing the nation. He then offered a pardon to all southerners who were willing to swear an oath of loyalty to the United States.
What happened to Lincoln? President Lincoln was assassinated in April 1865, by a man named, John-Whilkes-Booth. A new president, named Andrew Johnson, became the new president.
What was Johnson's plan for reconstruction? Under Johnson's plan, each former confederate state could be readmitted to the union after it met three certain requirements. Each state was required to nullify its act of secession, acknowledge that the U.S. government would not pay its Civil War debts, and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment to the constitution.
Slavery ends in Texas!
Who was Gordon Granger and why did he come to Texas? Gordon Granger was a general who came to Texas to announce Lincolns emancipation proclamation, and declare that all enslaved Texans were now free.
What was Juneteenth? What was it like? On June 19, 1865, Granger's order ending slavery set off great celebrations among many African Americans in, and around Galveston. African Americans in Texas knew the day as, Juneteenth, or Emancipation Day. Ever since then, it has always been a day to celebrate. It's a legal state holiday, and the oldest-known observance commemorating the end of slavery.
What is the Freedman's Bureau? The Freedman's Bureau is an organization to help freed people find jobs, get an education, have good health, shelter, food and water, and basic necessities. This went on from September 1865 to July 1870. Not only did it help elders, but it also founded schools to provide children and adults the basic education they need to make a living. By 1870, Texans had more than 100 schools for African Americans.
New Texas governor Appointed
Who did Johnson appoint as governor of Texas and why? President Johnson tried to appoint unionist to lead provisional governments. He turned to Andrew j. Hamilton, a former state representative.
Who were the delegates at the constitutional convention? This convention would write a new state to a constitutional convention. Several had been high-ranking officers in the Confederate army, and the president has not pardoned some of them.
Was the Convention bias? Yes, because they didn't give any African Americans rights, and the majority of the people were high ranking officers in the confederate army.
A new constitution
What did the new constitution of 1866 say? - the constitution said to stop short of granting African Americans Texans rights. African Americans are not allowed to vote, or hold public office or testify in court against a white person.
When ex-confederate took control, what did they refuse? - they refused because the confederate would not allow African Americans to vote.
What were black codes? - black codes were laws limiting the rights of African Americans passed by southern governments after the civil war.
Congress takes control
Why did congress feel that Johnson's plan was not working? Since the US constitution gives congress the power to admit new states, they said that congress should control reconstruction, and not the president. When president Johnson's reconstruction plan produced few changes in the south, this arguement grew even more stronger.
Who were the Radical Republicans? The Radical Republicans were a group of republicans who believed that congress should direct reconstruction.
How did the Radical Republicans gain control? They cared a lot about freed people, so they realized that now that they could vote, they would choose them. In late 1866, the congressiol election gave the Republicans two-thirds control over both houses they then launched their own reconstruction plan.
Radical Reconstruction begins!
What plan did congress make for Reconstruction? They declared that all existing states in the south were illegal. They divided the south into five military districts, and and put an army general in charge of each. The military would rule the district until the states met certain requirements.
What were the military districts? The 1st district was just Virginia, the only state not to be joined with another. General John Schofield was the leader. The second district was made up by North and South Carolina, under control by General Daniel Sickles. The third district was made up by Florida, Georgia, and Alabama, controlled by General John Pope. The fourth district, Arkansas and Mississippi, was controlled by General Edward Ord. Finally, the fifth district was made up by Texas and Louisiana, under control by General Philllip Sheridan.
What was the Ironclad Oath? The ironclad oath was a key device for the removal of ex-Confederates from the political arena. It required every white male to swear they had never borne arms against the Union or supported the Confederacy.
Freedman get the vote!
Who registered freedmen to vote? In almost every Texas county, freedman were working to try and get other freedman registered to vote.
About how many were registered? By 1868, nearly 50,000 freedmen had been registered. This figure represented nearly one half of all Texas voters.
What was the KKK? The KKK (ku klux klan) was a secret organization of white men formed after the civil war that used terror and violence to harm African Americans.
Why did the KKK oppose carpetbaggers and scalawags? Carpetbaggers always moved to the south, and most Klan violence took place in the North. Scalawags were for reconstruction, while the KKK opposed it.
NEWSFLASH! The Civil rights movement of the 1960's, saw a surge of Ku Klux Klan activity, including bombings of black schools and churches and violence against black and white activists in the south.
When did reconstruction end in Texas? In March 1870, Texas reconstruction was ceased. However, many white Texans believed it would not officially end as long as radical republicans remained in power.
What were white people in Texas upset about? They didn't like that black people were starting to gain control over basic things such as education, voting, religion, and owning their own land.
Where did most freed people live in Texas? Most freed people lived in rural areas, such as communities they made along creek and river bottoms, while some still worked for white landowners.
What happened in 1872 and what will the lasting effect be? In 1872, the democrats won a majority of the seats in the states legislator. They abolished the states police force, and took steps to reduce the governor's power. In the end, the democrats would control Texas state government for the next 105 years.