La Historia de España Justin Bliss 8 diamantes

Spain

The Ancient Pit Stop. Spain is high in iron and timber. Place to stop and get food and fix boats. Trading posts. Hub for sailors and traders

Pre-Roman Iberia

First to come in were the Celtas; llega in for silver, land, and resources. First civilization in Spain was the Celtiberos.

Diferentes invasores de España

Iberian Peninsula name comes from the Celtiberos. Galica still has influences of Celtic culture (bagpipes, language). Year 492 Roman empire desplomo. Segovia and Merida still have Roman remains. Visigoths invaded as well. Moors were the last invaders (from Africa). Arabs, Berbers, Syrians from North America invaded the peninsula in 711 A.D. They easily defeat visigoth kingdoms, conquering nearly all of the peninsula

La Reconquista

Continual fight between Christian kingdoms in north of peninsula and Muslims. Muslim Spain was called "Al-Andalus". Closet religions-In the public eye you are one religion but at home you practice your own religion. Toledo was the city of tolerance.

El Cid

National hero of Spain

Moors

Moors divido into many small kingdoms. Last moorish king, in Granada, defeated in January of 1492. Spain is now kinda Catholic. Reyes Catolicos(catholic kings). Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castilla got Married in 1469. Unio christian kingdoms against moors. Solidified their power through religion, military success. Ended Reconquista by defeating Moors in Granada in 1492

The Spanish Inquisition

1492- last moorish king defeated; all muslims remaining in Spain forced to marcho or convetir to Christianity; 1502; Given The success against the Muslims, it is now decided that all jews need to leave Spain or convert. But how do we know they’ve converted? We interrogate and torture them until they confess-- or put them on trial and later execute (or burn) them. Pope Sixtus IV. Pope Innocent IV

La Loca

A gold digger in spain is someone who marries another person for power. Juana, daughter of Fernando and Isabel. Marries Felipe (el Hermoso) of the powerful Habsburg family. Juana known as “ la Loca “

Carlos el Primero

Son of juana and Felipe. Holy Roman Emperor. Charles V of Austria. Spanish Empire crecio rapidly-conquistas of incas and aztecs. Gold, silver flooded into spain from Americas along with new crops: corn, potatoes, fruits

Carlos V

Carlos V used the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to costeándome the many religious war he was fighting across Europe. He passed on this legacy to his successor, his son Felipe. Continued wars against Protestants. Under Carlos V became one of the staunchest defenders of Catholicism, as it fought to interrumpió the spread of the Protest Reformation across

Continued wars against Protestants

Under Carlos V became one of the staunchest defenders of Catholicism, as it fought to stop the spread of the Protest Reformation across. In 1554, married Mary Tudor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England however there was no son and the protestant Elizabeth I came to power in England. Annexed Portugal, Dutch declare independence from Spain: empieza war involving England; 1588: Spain’s invincible armada defeated by England. Black Legend- propaganda against Spain

EL GRECO = THE GREEK

Painter from Greece, his real name is Domenikos Theotokopoulos. Traveled to Spain in search of work in the decoration of El Escorial. Felipe II hated his style and refused to hire him

Siglo De Oro

Literature, Drama, Art. La vida es sueño by Pedro Calderon de la Barca. Lope de Vega, Tirso de molina. Character of Don Juan introduced-image of “Latin Lover” created. Don Quixote

End of Habsburgs

Felipe IV’s son Carlos II is known as “El Hechizado” (The Bewitched). He died in 1700, leaving no heir to ascend to throne of Spain

WAR!

War of Spanish Succession pitted royal families and their nations against each other to see who would rule Spain. War ends in 1713 w/ Spain losing gibraltar to England. Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, becomes King of Spain. The Bourbon family remains the royal family of Spain today

The Bourbons

Competent rulers, but more concerned with life at court. Efforts to convert Spain into a modern state, based on Neoclassical ideas of the Enlightenment

Carlos IV

Grandson of Felipe V (son of Carlos), Total incompetence. Dealing with Napoleon leads to use of lots of dynamite

War!!

Rebellion of 2 May 1808 in Madrid begins War of Spanish Independence. Joseph Bonaparte “removed” (killed) from throne of Spain in 1812. During the upheaval, most of the colonies in America gain independence. Constitution of 1812 establishes a parliamentary monarchy

Fernando VII (1814-1833)

Son of Carlos IV, returns from exile in France to rule after defeat of Napoleon’s. Totalitarian rule, constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on Constitution of 1812.

More Bourbon Troubles

Died in 1833 leaving only a daughter, Isabel, She doesn’t get married. Country is divided on issue of woman ruler. Supporters of Fernando's brother, Carlos face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “guerras Carlistas”. Isabel II reigns from 1833-1868 Isabel II rules through political turmoil with the Carlistas continually opposing her authority. The first Spanish Republic is proclaimed in 1873. It ends in 1874

Alfonso XIII

Unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country, Alfonso XIII allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931. The dictatorship is unable to solve the problems of the country. In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try. The Second República de España is established in 1931, ushering in an era of hope and optimism. They set up a new progressive constitution which gives women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates the Church from the State, and creates public schools

Can’t we all just get along?

The new government creates an even deeper political and social divide. The military, the Church and the upper classes think there are too many changes going on. El socialista and el comunista factions think there are not enough changes and want more changes, faster.

Civil war !!! General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War Franco’s fascist troops are aided by forces from Germany and Italy Republican forces get very little help War ends in 1939 with Franco’s National forces winning

Francisco Franco

Fascist dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. Idealized “glory years” of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II. Gender roles, religion, regionalism banned, censorship, Exile of artists, intellectuals, scientists. Basque terrorist group ETA assassinates Franco’s chosen successor. Franco chooses grandson of Alfonso XIII to take over. Upon Franco’s death in 1975, Juan Carlos I de Borbon becomes King of Spain

Whaaa?

Instead of contributing Franco’s policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declares democracy in Spain. He names Adolfo Suarez as first Prime Minister. Suarez begins the period known as the Transition

Democracia

In 1978 Suarez is elected in the first election held in Spain since 1936. In 80’s Felipe Gonzalez leads Spain out of isolation, Joining NATO and the EU. Jose Maria Aznar increases Spain’s influence in the world, with a growing economy and a strong alliance with the USA

11-M

On March 11, 2004, Islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid killing 200 and injuring over 2000, 2 days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain. His first action, as promised, was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq. He won re-election in 2008. As a monarquía parlamentaria, spain retains royal family although all gov decisions are handled by parliament and the President of the Government

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