Women's rights is the fight for the idea that women should have equal rights with men. Over history, this has taken the form of gaining property rights, the women's suffrage, or the right of women to vote, reproductive rights, and the right to work for for equal pay.
Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system. Dorothea Dix toured prisons in the U.S. and all over Europe looking at the conditions of the mentally handicapped. She didn't like what she saw so she started the prison reform movements
The goal of the abolitionist movement was the immediate emancipation of all slaves and the end of racial discrimination and segregation. Advocating for immediate emancipation distinguished abolitionists from more moderate anti-slavery advocates who argued for gradual emancipation, and from free-soil activists who sought to restrict slavery to existing areas and prevent its spread westward
the temperance movement was when the government banned alcohol, because alcohol abuse was common in the early 1800s, especially in the West and among urban workers. Reformers blamed alcohol for poverty, the breakup of families, and crime. They called for temperance, drinking little or no alcohol.
In the 1800s, Horace Mann of Massachusetts led the common-school movement, which advocated for local property taxes financing public schools. Mann also emphasized positive reinforcement instead of punishment.