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Science and Tech of Today

On the possibility of space travel.

By David W

In 20 to 40 years, space enthusiasts will walk the stars when NASA decreases the costs from $10,000 per pound to 100s of dollars to 10s of dollars per pound of material into space.

It currently takes 143,000 gallons of fuel to go to space. But space travel is getting cheaper, because more people are advancing space technology and efficiency, and this causes a decrease in cost per flight, as efficiency trumps cost.

This graph shows the amount of thrust needed to get into orbit, thrust = cost.

Reporter: “would you like to go to space?” Joy Weir, respondee, “Yes.” reporter: “what are the downsides of space travel?” Joy Weir: “very expensive, possibly more than I have to spend.” reporter: “what if I told you that cost will decline over the years. What if I told you the cost will only be $10 per pound into space?” Joy Weir: “I think it is great that the cost is less later on” reporter: “are there any other concerns you still have about this opportunity?” Joy Weir: “I am worried about trash in space. If it is cheap to travel to space, people will pollute space. But I would like to see a firsthand view of earth from space.” reporter: “thank you for your time, Joy Weir.”

The speeds of reentry are immense (mach 25, or 17,500 miles per hour.), and this causes a lot to be added to the cost of going to space because heat shields are very heavy. This is a very important piece of tech, and can be improved greatly, with time. This is a major part of overall cost reduction.

The speeds of getting into orbit is also very high, 7824 meters per second. This speed won’t change, but it can be reached very efficiently, unlike the way we do it now. This is also the biggest contributor to cost because fuel is expensive, and manufacturing containers is also heavy on cost. It takes 143,000 gallons of fuel.

But space tourism will cause a lot of space junk. This could cause the tourism to die out, because if a rocket hits a piece of space junk, it could rupture, causing death of all on board persons. This is even more of a problem because each rocket causes more space junk.

This is a picture of space junk orbiting Earth

New Night Vision Goggles after 5 years with even better glasses promised for the military by 2022

By Jake Gordon

After over 5 years the military has finally received new night vision goggles(Enhanced Night Vision Goggles Version B) and even better ones are being promised by microsoft by 2022.

The military has been working on new better quality night vision goggles since 2013 and after the long wait the military has lighter and higher quality technology to help out with missions, practicing, and helps the military be much safer thanks to new communication technology put into the goggles. The military has not been the only people working on better quality technology. Microsoft has recently begun working on a even better version of night vision goggles, but now they are glasses. Microsoft's IVAS(Integrated Visual Augmentation System) is a much more advanced version of the ENVG-B because they are not only much lighter thanks to the glasses shape, but they also have better communication made to spread the tactics, positioning, and the different jobs of the military. IVAS also has the same thermal and heat detection that the ENVG-B does but since it is more compact it is much easier to use. This will mean that the ENVG-B will last a very short period of time as far as technology goes.

These new glasses should are announced to be used by the military in the later half of 2022. Lieutenant General James Richardson said about the glasses “You are able to train and rehearse that mission with a set of goggles, the tubes have gone away; it’s embedded with the glasses which will significantly reduce the weight…” Lt. Gen. Richardson is talking about the communication and thermal technology which is now inside of the glasses. By 2022 these glasses which are more compact and lightweight than the ENVG-B will be distributed to the army, they will be protective and make sending information from person to person much more efficient.

What do you do when you break your iPhone?

By Anton K

When you drop your iPhone and hear the thum, you realize that you broke it, what do you do? Go to a third-party to replace the screen for 60-150 dollars or get it replaced by Apple, which is done by a professional but it cost from 199-599 dollars. 199 dollars is a screen repair by Apple but if you break the back or other damage it can start from 250-599 dollars. Or you can get it repaired by Anton a screen repair start from 23-60 dollars. The minus of a broken screen that is not waterproof or dust-proof. Also you can do it yourself it going to be very difficult. Wall street Journal said “opening an iPhone is very scary and lots of things can go wrong”. The screen will cost from 8-100 dollars depends on what model you have. Today we have talked about what you can do to fix your iPhone and where to fix it, hopefully you know what to do when your iPhone breaks.

Hope for the heartless

By andrew shine

In Israel, at Tel Aviv University, scientists have developed the world's first 3d printed heart using safe and approved materials. It is a big step and it could help a lot in transplants.

Before now, scientists have only printed tissue but now they have made a fully functioning heart. It includes blood vessels, chambers, cells, and more. It will be used for transplants because there are not enough donors. It will also be used to modernize transplants.

According to Professor Tal Dvir of Tel Aviv University’s School of Molecular Cell Biology, “This heart is made from human cells and patient-specific biological materials. In our process these materials serve as the bioinks, substances made of sugars and proteins that can be used for 3D printing of complex tissue models.” also she says “People have managed to 3D-print the structure of a heart in the past, but not with cells or with blood vessels. Our results demonstrate the potential of our approach for engineering personalized tissue and organ replacement in the future.”

The size of the organ is very small, almost as small as a rabbits heart

But, the scientists plan to make it bigger. Before the scientists could start they had to perform a biopsy on a patient.

It is not the first artificial heart, the first was the Jarvik heart but that was a short term replacement.

The ink for the 3d printer that was used were things like collagen. Using safe materials made sure that there would be less rejections. Approximately 50% of organ transplants are rejected. The next step is programing/teaching the heart how to function. The cost was another big problem. The cost of a average heart transplant is 1.4 million dollars, and the cost of a artificial heart is expected to be 125 hundred thousand and 18 thousand every year after the heart is imported in to the patient's body. The scientists are working to put the heart in animal form and make it work with them. Prof. Dvir says that “Maybe, in ten years, there will be organ printers in the finest hospitals around the world, and these procedures will be conducted routinely.”

Who’s Better Samsung or Apple?

Does Apple have more pros than Samsung and does Samsung have to many cones? Samsung has a history of phones breaking, but at the same time gives good quality gadgets with low price. Apple, on the other hand, is more popular and makes more luxurious phones, but because it’s Apple and more luxurious, the price is high. What I mean by luxurious is stainless steel edges, glass back, and a beautiful box. Samsung pros: pro 1 less expensive, pro 2 cost less to repair screen, pro 3 Samsung buds and Gear watch are compatible with any device, pro 4 has a headphone jack. Samsung cones: con 1 very little amount of stores, con 2 images don’t look real when you take a photo, con 3 can’t message

Samsung people in a iPhone group, con 4 sim-tray is plastic and can break easily. Apple pros: pro 1 very beautiful phone, pro 2 a lot of stores, pro 3 the iphones have lots of different colors, pro 4 Apple ax6 is the fastest chip ever made. Apple cones: con 1 no headphone jack, con2 back glass is super easy to break this is what jerryrig everything said “the back glass is super easy to break and only one drop can cause it to break and to fix it it cost 349-599 dollars.” con 3 Apple phone is only compatible with apple watch and not gearwatch from Samsung or other watches, con 4 you cannot listen to music and charge, because there is no headphone jack. We heard about what Apple and Samsung offer, hopefully you found out what to buy from what company. Thank you for reading.

Scientists are researching Mars’ environment in hopes to find live able parts for Humans hopefully in the near future

By Jake Gordon

Nasa and other companies are studying on when or if humans will ever be able to live on mars. This means that we might be able to have people live at both planets so we can balance out different populations, and hopefully the environmental problems go down by a large portion.

Scientists are focusing on Mars out of all the planets because it is inside a zone called the “Goldilocks Zone” this is a zone that is within a certain distance of the sun so the temperatures are liveable. That is only partly what the scientists are looking for though. During 2013 a large spike of a gas called methane was detected by some satellites. Scientist began concentrating even more on Mars. The reason for this is because methane is a gas often made by organisms such as Martian Microbes which is what scientists are hoping, because that shows that life on Mars at least for the atmosphere might be liveable. The methane seems to spike randomly so it is hard to tell whether people can live there or not. One scientist named Dr.Giurunna said “The methane could be released episodically along faults that break through the Permafrost due to partial melting of ice.” Luckily this is only a theory and there could still be microbes living on Mars and if Microbes can surely we can sometime in the near or distant future, especially with all of the amazing scientists constantly studying the surface, minerals, pressure, and gasses in Mars’ environment. All hope for living on Mars is not lost and will most likely workout for humanity.

On preventing human kind’s destruction.

The world is in trouble. People in china are already feeling it, and in 2050, boston will see that plenty of land will be underwater, all because of humankind’s habit of burning fossil fuels, causing global warming, or the Earth heating up because of greenhouse gasses.

This is the fate of Humans, not on the stars, exoplanets, or moons, but stuck on earth, suffocating on our own noxious gasses, and getting sick from plague. Except there is one other future, one including different energy generation techniques. There are dif

ferent ways of generating energy, and a choice must be made, about which one is the best.

There is one option that will not be considered. Burning fossil fuels is that option. It uses up natural gas, coal and other resources at an astonishing rate, and we as the human race produce 365296.8 tons of CO2 every hour. This rate does not decline, it increases. With more cars and more people, the production of CO2 spikes up like we have never seen before.

An option to be considered is going completely nuclear. Nuclear energy generates a tremendous amount of energy, with not so much material usage, and not as much waste, and as a plus, we can change the uranium waste of these reactors to plutonium, which can be used in modified nuclear reactors, creating more energy, and nuclear reactors are, like space travel, getting much more efficient.

But nuclear energy comes at a cost. Nuclear reactors will use up Uranium 233 almost as fast as fossil fuel burning plants did coal, although breeder reactors are still being researched, and could use Thorium instead of Uranium. Nuclear energy also leaves deadly nuclear waste, and although this waste and be repurposed for other reactors, it mostly just sits around killing people, not to mention it will ruin nature.

Nuclear reactors are also dangerous to leave running, as they can get out of control and melt down so catastrophically, that it will render whole cities uninhabitable for thousands of years, for example the whole Chernobyl thing. Nuclear reactors can also be dangerous in another way. The waste can be repurposed for any country with a reactor to build nuclear warheads, allowing the town Scoby, Montana, to threaten the world with nuclear attacks. There could also be people who just buy warheads at random in this case, and firing them at random at important places.

One other type of energy to consider is natural energy, for example, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Natural energy is by one of the best ways to generate energy, and it is advancing all the time, to produce more and more energy. It uses natural sources to generate energy, and it has almost no side effects that are bad. And it is really an option for us Humans to consider.

Natural means of generating energy are great, but the side effects are still to be considered. Natural energy doesn’t produce too much energy, as it isn’t that easy to harvest all the potential of nature.It also takes lots of material to make, because it needs constant maintenance to keep it running, and it takes up so much space.

The last and most prominent way of energy generation is fusion energy.

Fusion is what the sun does, smashing two lighter atoms of hydrogen (H2 and H3) together to form helium and one neutron. This is easy in the sun, but hard on Earth. Here at Earth, we have to make temperatures, or pressure high enough for it to fuse. This is possible using laser confinement or the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor or ITER in France.

There are arguments whether fusion energy is safe or not, but it is safe, because if the containment of the fusion fails, the heat and pressure necessary will fail, stopping the reaction, and keeping safety for all. Fusion would be a very efficient energy source to invest in, and lots already are. The biggest tests going on right now are ITER in France, and the National Ignition Facility in the USA.

Trains Pros and Cons and Planes Pros and Cons

By andrew shine

Have you ever been stuck with traveling to another place and having to choose trains or planes? Well, today I will be giving pros and cons of train and plane travel on the northeast corridor between Boston and New York.

One of the pros of taking trains is that the train station is typically in the city in which you are going. For example in New York, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia are in Brooklyn and Queens, but the train stations (Penn Station ,Grand Central Station) are right in midtown Manhattan meaning you don't have do take Uber or a cab or a subway. This leads me into the next pro which is pricing. Planes and trains are pretty close in price. But, the airport is not in the city which means that you have to take a taxi, subway, or Uber and that extra costs. If you book with Amtrak, the price for a round trip is about $110.00 for one adult, and with Jetblue for round trip, one adult, it would be about $181.95. A taxi would add around $50 more. Finally, I come to my last pro, timing. This is where the trains and the planes come the closest. One way on Amtrak is 4 hours from Boston to New York. On airplanes it is about 1 hour and a half. Add the travel time of the airport security and cabs/uber/subway you get a very very close race.

Now the pros of planes. For long distances, planes are far superior but here we are talking Boston to New York. The first of the pros is that there is no construction investment. Air transport does not need construction of tracks like railways. Also, the airplanes can fly so they don't have to worry about mountains water or anything that might be a issue for trains. Airplanes provide comfortable, quick transport services. Air shipping is one of the quickest and best ways to ship anything anywhere.

There are also cons of each. I will start the cons of planes. My first con is delays. Planes are one of the worst ways to go in winter due to all the snow and bad weather. The top cause of flight delays, according to USA TODAY some of the top ways planes can be delayed are: congestion in air traffic, earthquakes and tsunamis , length of fueling, inclement weather, such as thunderstorm, hurricane, or blizzard, late arrival of the aircraft to be used for the flight from a previous flight, maintenance problems with the aircraft, or problems with security. All of these reasons can cost the airlines a lot. Another con of planes is security. As stated before going through security can take a very long time. Another con is that you give up privacy. Recently the TSA added face scanners which add concerns about privacy. And you have to get there a long time before your flight departs which adds a lot of time. And finally they are not as comfortable. The seats are very confined and there is not a lot of room to move around.

There are also cons of trains, such as congestion. In big cities with huge population, commuter trains are always congested. According to Montway Auto Group, “There are some commuter trains that allow passengers to stand up. In such commuter trains, people do not normally have space even to move their bodies. This is not good for people who are suffering from respiratory problems like asthma. Besides, it can lead to the spread of diseases.” Also they state that “Commuter trains are suitable for children due to congestion. Children normally need space. Commuter trains cannot offer them such. However, in recent time there are many commuter trains that offer maximum comfort to the passengers. Such trains are constructed with the latest technology. There are comfort rooms and comfortable seats. But such trains are more expensive than usual ones.” Finally freight trains have rights. If a freight train is in front of the passenger train the passenger would have to hold for the freight train which causes delays.

The choice is yours I prefer trains but my opinion doesn't matter I hope you learned some things.

Tornadoes and how to stay safe from them.

Tornadoes can form on land out of nowhere, at any time, and can be very deadly. Tornadoes are one of the most destructive storms on the planet. They take many lives, and can kill about 70 people on average, and can cause 400 million dollars in damage. This article will teach you how to stay safe from this natural disaster. Tornadoes are most common in the middle of the United States, in a place called tornado alley. So be extra alert if you live in the middle of the United States. They have the most tornadoes a year. If the air is unusually warm and humid in the lower atmosphere, and cooler in the upper atmosphere, and wind speed increases, that would be a clue that a tornado is coming, and you should prepare for one. The article, “Staying safe in a tornado” by CDC, says, “Even the possibility of a tornado must be taken seriously,” which means that if you see a tornado warning on television, you should pick a safe room in your house to go to, like the basement or a bathroom, or the hallway. You must stay away from all windows. Plan an emergency kit beforehand. This could include water bottles, food, and a flashlights and batteries. Always be alert for tornado warnings by watching weather reports. Tornadoes can go from a category one tornado, the least dangerous, to a category 5 tornado, the most dangerous. So, to stay safe from tornadoes, you must follow the directions in this article, to survive one of the most dangerous storms in the world.

Feature article Susan H

What is at the end of a black hole?

What is at the end of a black hole? Do they just suck everything up, or are they portals to other universes? There could be something at the end of a black hole, it could lead to other parts of our universe, galaxies and galaxies away from us, or whole other universes entirely! Black holes are the remains of a big star that has died, a supernova, a star that explodes when it dies, and shoots parts of it out into the universe. ​To form a Black Hole there has to be a mass left where the star once was, that must be more than 3 times the mass of our sun. ​Black holes have a strong gravitational pull that sucks in other stars, even light can’t escape it. In space, black holes are known for sucking things up and destroying information. But, that may not be the case. Nobody knows what lies at the other end of a black hole. In a black hole, there is so much density that if you could go into one, you would be crushed, and you would get squeezed out into the other side, the black hole acting like a tunnel. The black hole would be collapsing into another universe. From the article, mnn, it says, “​black holes are less like holes and more like tunnels, or passageways.”​ If you were to get squeezed into the other side, then you could be in another, older universe. So, when information gets sucked into a black hole, then it may not be lost, and might just be at the other end of the black hole, in another universe.

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