Forestry in canada By Nikola Kriznar

What is forestry? Forestry is one of the first industries in Canada . It brings a lot of jobs and money to the economy . It brings around 19.3billion est . to the economy and produces 200 k jobs . Overall forests contribute a major source of wealth to Canada , giving a variety of benefits economical , socially and environmental benefits . Forestry is the science practice of cutting , caring and managing trees . If trees grow to be old being under them might be unsafe because the branches might fall and that's why we need people caring for trees . Because of technology cutting trees has become more efficient , making more exports of wood per day possible . We call the process deforestation now days . The process is very important to the economy because it benefits the economy . 30% of Canada is covered in forests , which is why we are the second biggest wood producers in the world , after Brazil because they have the Amazon rain forest . Deforestation is good economically but it's very damaging to the environment . To the environment they include soil erosion , habitat loss and contribute CO2 to the atmosphere changing the climate .

Problems : Cutting trees causes an increase of CO2 in the air . Also cutting trees might destroy certain ecosystems that rely on trees etc . Lumbers have one of the biggest death rates . The death rate workers is around 2 percent . Cutting trees is very risky if certain precautions are not taken . Cutting trees also create droughts . Because trees create humidity in the area they are in cutting them decreases the humidity .Because of the increase of CO2 in air diseases such as asthma and other diseases increase . Increase in temperature will cause more forest fires . In the past 20 years forest fire rates in Canadas boreal area has increased . Soil erosion , limited resource . Soil erosion is when the topsoil of the earth's surface fades away into the water or air . And there isn't unlimited trees so if we cut too much we might run out of the important resource , it will also cause damage to the environment .

Pros and Cons : Pros are that deforestation creates space for infrastructural benefits such as making space for houses , malls etc. We gain the resources we need to make furniture , houses , and many other things . It also creates more job opportunities (someone who cuts down the trees, operates the machines, a person who exports the resources, manages the resources. Financial jobs are created through deforestation and forestry too. It also creates space for agriculture which is one of the main reason we remove forests .

Cons : Some cons of deforestation is that it releases CO2 into the atmosphere trapping greenhouse gases which warms up the planet , and causes climate change. When humans cut down forests there is major habitat loss for the living beings living there . By cutting trees let's say in an example a bear's home is a tree . If humans clear cut the forest then the bear has nowhere to go and no food to find because the fish die because of the topsoil polluting water . Deforestation impacts the food webs a lot and sometimes even destroys entire ecosystems . Deforestation also causes soil erosion which means the topsoil of the dirt is faded away in water or in the air . And an obvious con is if we continue cutting trees without limits we will run out of the resource . This is where selective cutting can help . Selective cutting can help trees be sustainable because selective cutting is normally cutting every 4th tree allowing the other trees to have time to reproduce . Selective cutting is a lot better than clear cutting , which is why a lot of companies use that technique .

Instead of clearing the area completely companies leave trees there .

Deforestation production : Production of Forestry in Canada /year .

Hardwood lumber (cubic metres) 1,754,400

Softwood lumber (cubic metres) 62,974,400

Newsprint (tonnes) 3,500,000

Printing and writing paper (tonnes) 3,041,000

Wood pulp (tonnes) 16,841,000

Structural panels (plywood and oriented strandboard) (cubic metres) 7,966,755

Facts about deforestation : Deforestation is a big problem if it's not managed . That's why there are many laws regarding this in Canada .

-30 % of the land on Earth is covered by forests . -In 100 years if humans keep deforestation there will be no rain forests on this planet , and we get a big portion of oxygen from rain forests . In fact the biggest rain forest the Amazon rain forest is called the lungs of the Earth because how much oxygen it produces . -Agriculture is the main reason of deforestation . -25 % of the plants that fight cancer are found in the amazon rain forest.

Where is forestry in Canada?

Canada has 9% of global forest. The forests stretches from Yukon and northeast BC , Prairie provinces (Alberta , Saskatchewan and Manitoba ) and to Quebec , Ontario to Labrador and Newfoundland.

Sustainability : Deforestation practices such as clear cutting is not sustainable at all and if humans clear cut for 100 years all the rain forests on this planet would be gone , which means an increase of CO2 in the atmosphere which means increase in temperature and climate change . Canada has one of the strictest policies on the world when it comes to cutting trees. Laws around forests ensure they can be sustainable . In Serbia because there isn't strict laws like in Canada they cut down famous trees on the mountain Zlatibor for production . Another way that there can be sustainability is by selective cutting. Selective cutting is a lot more sustainable then clear cutting . Selective cutting is when there is every 4th tree cut (or something similar) . Also by replacing the trees we cut with plants . This is sustainable because when we cut trees and plant them . In Canadian law you have to plant 3 trees for every tree you cut . This way we can have a sustainable system . But this costs more money so companies will normally go with clear or selective cutting . Selective cutting purpose is so trees can drop seeds making other trees grow making it sustainable for the ecosystem .

Workers : Being a lumberjack might not be the best career choice but some people must do it so they can sustain their families . Doing what they do requires a lot of effort physically and they get underpaid most of the time . Being a lumberjack is one of the deadliest careers because it's so dangerous sometimes it can be fatal . And in recent years in Canada workers were not happy how much they were being paid so their wages were increased by 11 percent bringing it up to 1050$ per month . If someone dies and their families start controversy around the company which is bad for the company if they are looking for new fresh workers .

Where do we sell the products ? Cutting trees is really bad environmentally but it's very good when it comes to the economy . Canada mostly sells their products to countries that can't have it themselves . Because Canada has alot of biodiversity when it comes to ecosystems compared to countries that don't have alot of trees they would get damaged more than Canada would because they would destroy their animals habitat if they were cutting the rate that Canada does . We sell it to countries in Europe , Japan , South Korea ,US , etc.

Credits:

Created with images by BLMOregon - "Brush Creek Watershed Restoration Project" • davebloggs007 - "Canmore Alberta Canada day walk around 2016" • jumpyjodes - "forest" • sybarite48 - "Thésée-la-Romaine (Loir-et-Cher)" • Forest Service - Pacific Northwest - "188 Spruce Logs" • juemi - "fruit fact clover fern po red" • Wayne National Forest - "IMG_6888" • BLMOregon - "Secretary_Salazar_Medford_37" • hpgruesen - "tank truck truck tractor"

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