Is Canada the best place to live? marwa kamkah

Intro:

Canada is by far the most accomplished city in the world, as far it's acceptance of same-sex marriages, from affordable health care, But does that make it the best possible place to live in? Although I am extremely proud of being Canadian myself, I don't believe we are the best country to live in. As we treat FNMI as second class citizens, have a flawed immigration system, lack of natural resource security and planning for the growth of the cities. On the other hand, Canada has one of the most beautiful landscapes in the world making our country an ideal tourist sight.

Pros & Cons of Canada

Immigration

Demographics:

Canada in the year 1990's our total population was around 25,000,000 people. Today, the population of Canada is now at a staggering 36,642,905 people, not only that, in Canada there is a continous decline in birth rates. These days woman only give birth to 1.6 children in there lifetime, that one child less than what a typical woman would have in the 90's. This is mainly due to couples no longer seeing children as a necessity but more as a want (this point of view is caused from people settling to urban areas), children are less likely to die off due to better health care, and an improvement in contraceptive material.

So, how is it possible that the population increased by more than 10,000,000 people in the last 20 years if the birth rates decrease by almost half? Well, although the birth rate did decreased throughout the years so did the infant mortality rate. In 1990's the infant mortality rate was 6.1 birth per 1,000 children. Today it has decreased to 4.6 births per 1,000 children due to new health practices such as C-section procedures, also 270,000 immigrants come to Canada per a year. That's 152,000 immigrants then it was 20 years prior.

Today Canada's death rate is 8.5 deaths per 1000 people and residence in Canada live up to the age of 85, recent studies have shown that Canada has more 65+ citizens then Canadians that are 15 and under. This concept is worrying because young people are the future of our economy, so if we have a minimal amount of youth the economy would soon be affected as the current employees would retire. Canada's total dependency rate including the elderly and youth amounts to 47.3% of our total population. Lastly a total population growth rate 0.73%.

past families// current families

Immigration system:

Canada is extremely reliant on Immigrants for the growth of our population, but a factor that seems to be overlooked are the quality of the people since we are so focused on the quantity. For example, Skilled working and business immigrants are extremely beneficial to the economy. They provide services that are needed, do things that other Canadians are not particulairy qualified to do, start businesses and create new empolyment. What I find flawed about this system is that there is an extremely large amount of points needed to qualify for skilled workers to immigrate and the fact that they're limiting it to only Quebec and federal entrepreneurs and investors, while family immigrants don't even have an assigned points system. This is concerning as the family members of the Canadian citizens may not have had an education, or are elderly and would not be able to sustain a job. If the people who are supporting their life style no longer have the means, or decides not wanting to support them any longer could be fatal to our economy. This would cause an increase in dependency rate, and homeless civilians. Canada would have to provide more homeless shelters which can actually hurt the economy and the reputation of the country. Although this may not be our intention but our immigration system unintentionally benefits the country that they are emigrating from rather than us. Since the standards for skilled working immigrants are so high yet they benefit the economy the most, when they don't qualify for immigration their home country would continue to benefit from there skill set, and we are ultimately lowering their dependency rate as we are accepting people who have little to no impact on their economy.

Pull factors:

-Employment

-Education

-Family

-Freedom of speech

-Safety

-Heath services

Push factors:

-Lack of Employment

-Bad education system

-Bad living conditions

-Fear of prosecution

- Bad health care

FNMI

There are many problems regarding the FNMI population. Although they live in similar areas as to which non-aboriginal do, they live a dramatically different lifestyle. One of the main concerns that should be addressed immediately is the poor sanitation and mental health care of on-reserve aboriginals. On-reserve aboriginals tend to die of 9 years in advanced compared to other Canadians, as well as their rates for rare cancers are 6x higher. The reasoning for this dramatic life expectancy gap is simply due to the contamination of the water. Their water is inadequately treated or not even available, and the water that is available is contaminated with E. coil, cancer-causing uranium, trihalomethanes etc. Aboriginals not only do they consume the water, though, like the rest of us they bath in that water as well, thus causing excruciating skin infections and rashes. So, in order just to survive they would have to purchase large jugs of water which would not only increase the amount of waste but would also end up in the lakes and rivers.

Aboriginals are more likely to commit suicide or become addicted to alcohol then they are to graduate high school, but what is causing this? what is causing present self-harm is past events. Colonization began with European explorers and became more abusive over the years and the first residential schools were built in the 1820's. The students experienced emotional and physical abuse as well and were separated from their families, and being taught that their culture was wrong, this caused isolation, depression, alcoholism and self-harm. Although residential homes no longer exist, the history of aboriginals is taught, and so they feel an isolation between them and the rest of Canada and not to mention the current living conditions that they are still in today. So, they would feel as if they are lesser than thus causing symptoms of depression. So, they end up inflicting self-harm and killing themselves as they don't have the necessary mental health services excusable to them.

Effects of the water// Their water// Living standers

Landscape

Canada is not only diverse in its people, but this vase country has one of the most diverse landscapes, from 15 km deserts to the world's longest coastline. Visiting Canada should definitely be on your bucket list. Canada has several land forms with different characteristics and wild lives for you to explore.

Western Cordillera:

Western Cordillera is located at the western edge of Canada coving most of the Yukon, British Colombia and western Alberta. Western Cordillera regions were created by the collision of the pacific ocean, and the North American plates. It includes high, sharp-peaked mountains, valleys and plateaus. This region of Canada is particularly rich in minerals, timber, is a great source of hydroelectric power and has several different species living within the area (Mule Deer, Rocky Mountain Elk, Stone Sheep ect)

certain types of vegetation that you'd commonly find are herbs, lichens and at higher elevations of the land as well as different types of coniferous forests and grass lands at lower elevations of the land.

Canadian shield:

The Canadian shield takes up most of Canada including Nunavut, Quebec, Labrador, Ontario, Manitoba, a large part of Saskatchewan and parts of Alberta and the Northwest Territory. Many small lakes and waterfalls due to the glaciers scraping away the soil from the last ice age. This landform region includes rounded hills made of metamorphic rocks, and also the worlds larges rocks. This large region of Canada has non-fertile soil but has metallic minerals such as lead, gold, nickel, copper and zinc. Wildlife includes weasels, mink, otters, beaver, grizzlies and black bears.

The Canadian shield is coved in Boreal forests in the southern region ad tundras in the Northern part of the region.

Appalachian Mountains:

Appalachian mountains make up southern Quebec and most of the Atlantic provinces. The land form region was created by the North Americian, European and African plate 300 million years ago and over time erosion rounded out the mountains. They provide long ocean bays and natural resources such as fossil fuels like coal, and other resources like iron and zinc from igneous and metamorphic rock. Wildlife includes squirrels, rabbits and deer.

The only type of vegetation is in fact available on the Appalachian mountains and that's deciduous broadleaf forests.

Innuitian Mountains:

Innuitian mountains inhabits all of Nunavut and the Northwest territory. The Innuitian mountains were created when the North American plate moved northward, they are much younger than the Appalachian mountains meaning that erosion didn't significantly round them. Some locations are over 2,500 meters in height, and 1290 Km in length. Unlike other land form regions it is highly unexplored due to hostile climates.

This land form region is above the current tree line, meaning that vegetation doesn't occur.

Interior Plains:

Interior Plains coves most of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and some of NWT and Manitoba. The Interior Plains were created when sediments from the Shield and the Rocky Mountains were deposited in shallow inland seas and compressed into layers of sedimentary rock. The Interior Plains have hot summers, and colds winters. It's also flat, has extremely fertile soil as it provides us with extensive farming, and sediment rock which contains coal, oil and gas deposits.

In the northern part of the Interior plains there are different types of grades, herbs, but hardly any trees, the southern part of the interior plains is mostly coniferous forests.

Hudson Bay Lowlands

Located around the southwestern shore of the Hudson Bay and James Bay in Ontario and Quebec. The Hudson Bay flat low elevated areas covered by bogs, fens, dotted with ponds, lakes, and streams. This land form region does not provide natural resources but has wild life like snow geese, Canada geese, brant, and tundra swans.

The Hudson Bay lowland is mainly wetland.

Arctic-Hudson Bay Lowlands:

the Arctic-Hudson Bay Lowlands is located in the northern parts of the Canadian shield. Low-lying, barren islands with coastlines ranging from extensive lowlands to steep cliffs. The Arctic-Hudson Bay Lowlands have short, but warm summers and freezing winters. The Arctic-Hudson Bay Lowlands provide no future resources.

No vegetation occurs, Fairly lifeless area

Climate-

Climate plays a big factor in any country as it affects the types of vegetation and your overall surroundings. In Canada in particular there are six different climate controls that affect us. There are latitude and longitude, ocean currents, wind and air masses, elevation, relief, Nearness to Water. Also known as L.O.W.R.N.

All the different landform regions stated above are controlled by three different types of climate called Marine, Arctic and Continental climates. Marine climates only have 2 seasons which are summer and winter. The oceans or lakes keeps the air over the land cool in summer and warm in the winter. This creates a mild, but wet climate. Also, through out the year you would experience 30 to 90 inches of precipitation. Arctic climate on the other hand has extremely long, and cold winters with short, and cool summers. Lastly, continental climates includes cold winters, hot summers, little rainfall, and an overall dry climate. Temperatures ranging up to -9 to 25 degrees celsius, an example of continental climate is Ontario.

Natural disasters

Canada experiences minimal of amounts of natural disasters due to its location on earth, but what has been occurring lately is that we have been experiencing minor hurricane and earthquakes in the Nova Scotia areas. The concerns that I have is that Canada does not have any sort of plan if one were occur. Thus meaning we would experience an economic downfall due destroyed houses, schools, recreational services and work places, as well as increased amount homelessness and in order to replace them they would have to increase tax dramatically. August 12th, 2012 a natural disaster occurred in Alberta. over 230 people were injured and millions of homes, school and buildings were destroyed causing Canada to pay over 270,000,000 dollars to cover the cost.

I believe that Canada should in fact have a plan. Since most of natural disasters occur in the Nova Scotia area we should add saftey houses throughout the province. That way we would keep people from getting injured, and health Canada would not have to face millions of dollars worth of medical treatment due to natural disasters. What Canada should also do is have emergency housing that way Canadians don't have to resort to living on the street, we should also warn the people living in that particular area where natural disasters in an effort to make them move else where. Knowing that they may not be economically available to move right away we would provide them the location of the saftey houses and the emergency houses, as well as basic saftey procedures.

Natural Resources

Canada is the richest country in natural resources by far. Although there are many benefits to having access to so many natural resources. We often take it for granted, treat it like it's infinite and extract it at an unsustainable rate, as well as trashing our country to do so. Why? you may ask. Well, it's all for the sake of the economy. Canada makes billions of dollars per a year just to supply other countries with natural resources most commonly crude oil, water, and wood. Water and trees are extracted too often at a fast rate, if we were to continue this cycle its could dramatically alter aquatic and terrestrial wildlife as their habitats are being taken away, also if the extraction process were to continue this way there would be a dramatic increase of carbon in the atmosphere as not as many trees are available to filter the air as there is now. Crude oil is named "The most unsustainable resource in the world" and I personally agree with this title for the following reasons. It takes 4 gallons of fresh water just to produce only 1 gallon of the crude oil making water a scarce resource and more expensive, in order for us to extract the sandy tar-like substance the soil gets contaminated meaning that the soil cannot be used for future usage and those toxins could spread eventually to us and lastly it costs more to extract the oil than what we are actually profiting from it. Also, you would think that Canada has protection over these energy resources to ensure that we have the necessary amount needed for our country, well we actually don't and this also includes water. So, when we export our last set of oil, water, and trees what would be left for us?

Water tanks// Wood extraction // Curd oil extraction

Livable communities

Impacts of urban growth:

The most population dense part in Canada is Toronto. Mainly because it provides many humanity services and familiar products for new immigrants. Also, large cities like Toronto have universities, colleges, many job opportunities and commercial areas that new residents will find appealing. The problem that Canada is facing is that some parts of the country aren't as developed as others. Let's take in, for example, a small city like Dawson Creek, although it may be a friendly place to raise a family it doesn't provide the extensive amount of services. Then, it would appeal to these people to move to larger cities and it's a vicious cycle. As the population of the smaller city continuously decreases thus causing the city to fail, and since more people would have settled in larger cities there would be an increase in commute time which leads to stress and obesity thus increasing the chance of more severe diseases such as diabetes. Not only that, it would be significantly more challenging to find a job that would be able to sustain yourself in that environment because regular everyday products would be significantly more expensive. I believe that larger cities in Canada would be less population dense if similar services were provided else where.

Small cities // Effects of obesity

Conclusion

To conclude my statement. I honestly don't believe that Canada is an absolute best place to live in due to the following, but it also has many great qualities such as the landscape that cannot be found anywhere else. I do believe that Canada has the potential to one day the best place to live in.

Canada!

Resources

https://youtu.be/WGqtcnqRRNY

https://youtu.be/SPOSjIBDiH0

http://www.niagarafallsreview.ca/2013/05/20/tourism-the-backbone-of-niagaras-economy

http://globalnews.ca/news/2810070/top-10-most-costly-disasters-in-canadian-history-for-insurers/

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